Adelaide
Overview
Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia
South Australia
South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of , it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland...

 and the fifth-largest city in Australia. Adelaide has an estimated population of more than 1.2 million. The adjectival form "Adelaidean" is used in reference to the city and its residents.

Adelaide is a coastal city situated on the eastern shores of Gulf St Vincent, on the Adelaide Plains
Adelaide Plains
The Adelaide Plains is the area in South Australia between the Mount Lofty Ranges on the east and Gulf St Vincent on the west. The plains are generally fertile with annual rainfall of about per year....

, north of the Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
The Fleurieu Peninsula is a peninsula located south of Adelaide in South Australia, Australia. It was named after the French explorer and hydrographer Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu by the French explorer Nicolas Baudin as he mapped the south coast of Australia in 1802.Towns of interest in the...

, between Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges
Mount Lofty Ranges
The Mount Lofty Ranges are the range of mountains just to the east of Adelaide in South Australia.-Location and description:The Mount Lofty Ranges stretch from the southernmost point of the Fleurieu Peninsula at Cape Jervis northwards for over before petering out north of Peterborough...

.
Encyclopedia
Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia
South Australia
South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of , it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland...

 and the fifth-largest city in Australia. Adelaide has an estimated population of more than 1.2 million. The adjectival form "Adelaidean" is used in reference to the city and its residents.

Adelaide is a coastal city situated on the eastern shores of Gulf St Vincent, on the Adelaide Plains
Adelaide Plains
The Adelaide Plains is the area in South Australia between the Mount Lofty Ranges on the east and Gulf St Vincent on the west. The plains are generally fertile with annual rainfall of about per year....

, north of the Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
The Fleurieu Peninsula is a peninsula located south of Adelaide in South Australia, Australia. It was named after the French explorer and hydrographer Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu by the French explorer Nicolas Baudin as he mapped the south coast of Australia in 1802.Towns of interest in the...

, between Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges
Mount Lofty Ranges
The Mount Lofty Ranges are the range of mountains just to the east of Adelaide in South Australia.-Location and description:The Mount Lofty Ranges stretch from the southernmost point of the Fleurieu Peninsula at Cape Jervis northwards for over before petering out north of Peterborough...

. The suburbs reach roughly 20 km (12.4 mi) from the coast to the foothills but sprawl 100 km (62.1 mi) from Gawler
Gawler, South Australia
Gawler is the first country town in the state of South Australia, and is named after the second Governor of the colony of South Australia, George Gawler. It is located north of the centre of the state capital, Adelaide, and is close to the major wine producing district of the Barossa Valley...

 at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach
Sellicks Beach, South Australia
Sellicks Beach is a town in South Australia, close to Aldinga, and representing the southernmost extent of the Adelaide urban conurbation. At the 2006 census, Sellicks Beach had a population of 1,622....

 in the south.

Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen was the queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover as spouse of William IV of the United Kingdom. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, is named after her.-Early life:Adelaide was born on 13 August 1792 at Meiningen, Thuringia, Germany...

, queen consort
Queen consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

 to King William IV
William IV of the United Kingdom
William IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death...

, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital
New town
A new town is a specific type of a planned community, or planned city, that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. This contrasts with settlements that evolve in a more ad hoc fashion. Land use conflicts are uncommon in new...

 for a freely settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light
William Light
Colonel William Light was a British military officer and the first Surveyor-General of the Colony of South Australia...

, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens
River Torrens
The River Torrens is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains and was one of the reasons for the siting of the city of Adelaide, capital of South Australia. It flows from its source in the Adelaide Hills near Mount Pleasant, across the Adelaide Plains, past the city centre and empties...

 in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parkland. Early Adelaide was shaped by religious freedom and a commitment to political progressivism
Progressivism
Progressivism is an umbrella term for a political ideology advocating or favoring social, political, and economic reform or changes. Progressivism is often viewed by some conservatives, constitutionalists, and libertarians to be in opposition to conservative or reactionary ideologies.The...

 and civil liberties, which led to the moniker "City of Churches".

As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre
Adelaide city centre
The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

 along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace
North Terrace, Adelaide
North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central business and residential district of the city of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It runs east-west, along the northern edge of the CBD.-North Side of North Terrace:...

, King William Street
King William Street, Adelaide
King William Street is the part of a major arterial road that traverses the CBD and centre of Adelaide . It was named by the Street Naming Committee on 23 May 1837 after King William IV, the then reigning monarch, who died within a month...

 and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food, wine and culture, its long beachfronts, and its large defence and manufacturing sectors. It ranks highly in terms of liveability, being listed in the Top 10 of The Economist
The Economist
The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd. and edited in offices in the City of Westminster, London, England. Continuous publication began under founder James Wilson in September 1843...

's
World's Most Liveable Cities index in 2010 and being ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011.

Prehistory

Prior to British settlement, the Adelaide area was inhabited by the Kaurna Aboriginal nation .

19th century

South Australia was officially proclaimed as a new British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree
The Old Gum Tree
The Old Gum Tree is an historic site in Glenelg North, Australia. On 28 December 1836, the British governor John Hindmarsh delivered the proclamation creating the colony of South Australia. A ceremony is held on each year on Proclamation Day, with the current Governor reading out Hindmarsh's...

 in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North
Glenelg North, South Australia
Glenelg North is a seaside suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in both the City of Holdfast Bay and the City of West Torrens.-Demographics:...

. The event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day
Proclamation Day
Proclamation Day is the name of a number of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark an important proclamation. In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, the proclamation of a monarch's accession to the throne...

. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston
George Strickland Kingston
Sir George Strickland Kingston arrived in South Australia on the Cygnet in 1836. He was the Deputy Surveyor to William Light, engaged to survey the new colony of South Australia.-Early life:...

. In 1823, Light had fondly written of the Sicilian city of Catania
Catania
Catania is an Italian city on the east coast of Sicily facing the Ionian Sea, between Messina and Syracuse. It is the capital of the homonymous province, and with 298,957 inhabitants it is the second-largest city in Sicily and the tenth in Italy.Catania is known to have a seismic history and...

: "The two principal streets cross each other at right angles in the square in the direction of north and south and east and west. They are wide and spacious and about a mile long", and this became the basis for the plan of Adelaide. Light chose, not without opposition, a site on rising ground close to the River Torrens, which was the chief early water supply for the fledgling colony. "Light's Vision
Light's Vision
The first surveyor-general of Adelaide, South Australia, Colonel William Light designed a layout and development programme for the city. This plan is now known as "Light's Vision"...

", as it has been termed, has meant that the initial design of Adelaide required little modification as the settlement grew and prospered.

Adelaide was established as the centre of a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield was a British politician, the driving force behind much of the early colonisation of South Australia, and later New Zealand....

. Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, and realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to ever afford their own land. As a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history
Convictism in Australia
During the late 18th and 19th centuries, large numbers of convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government. One of the primary reasons for the British settlement of Australia was the establishment of a penal colony to alleviate pressure on their...

 of other Australian cities like Sydney, Perth
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

, Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

 and Hobart
Hobart
Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. Founded in 1804 as a penal colony,Hobart is Australia's second oldest capital city after Sydney. In 2009, the city had a greater area population of approximately 212,019. A resident of Hobart is known as...

.

As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan. However, by mid-1837 the South Australian Register
South Australian Register
The Register, originally the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register, was the first South Australian newspaper. It was first published in London in June 1836 and folded almost a century later in February 1931....

was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales, and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought. Following a burglary, a murder, and two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force (now named South Australia Police
South Australia Police
The South Australia Police is the police force of the Australian state of South Australia. It is an agency of the Government of South Australia within the South Australian Department of Justice.-History:...

) in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman
Henry Inman (police commander)
Henry Inman , cavalry officer, Pioneer of South Australia, founder and first commander of the South Australia Police, overlander, Anglican clergyman.-Origins:...

. The first Sheriff, Mr Samuel Smart, was wounded during the robbery, and on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed Governor of the temporary goal in 1839, and in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new Gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841.

Adelaide's early history was wrought by economic uncertainty and incompetent leadership. The first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh
John Hindmarsh
Rear-Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh KH RN was a naval officer and the first Governor of South Australia, from 28 December 1836 to 16 July 1838.-Early life:...

, clashed frequently with others, in particular with the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher
James Hurtle Fisher
Sir James Hurtle Fisher was a lawyer and prominent South Australian pioneer. He was the first Resident Commissioner of South Australia, the first Mayor of Adelaide and the first resident South Australian to be knighted....

. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km² (156.4 sq mi) of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

 and Tasmania
Tasmania
Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...

. Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. Light's survey was completed in this period, and land was promptly offered for sale to early colonists. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay
Encounter Bay
Encounter Bay is located on the south central coast of South Australia, some 100 km south of Adelaide, South Australia. It is named after the encounter on 8 April 1802 between Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin, both of whom were charting the Australian coastline for their respective countries...

 in the south to Clare
Clare, South Australia
The town of Clare is located in South Australia in the Mid North region, 136 km north of Adelaide. It gives its name to the Clare Valley wine and tourist region.-History:One of the first settlers in the area was John Horrocks, in 1839...

 in the north.

Governor Gawler
George Gawler
-External links: – Memorials and Monuments in Portsmouth, Hampshire, UK...

 took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house, the Adelaide Gaol
Adelaide Gaol
Adelaide Gaol was an Australian prison located in Thebarton, South Australia, Australia. The gaol was the first permanent one in South Australia and operated from 1841 until 1988...

, police barracks, a hospital, a customs house and a wharf at Port Adelaide
Port Adelaide
Port Adelaide is a suburb of Adelaide lying about 14 kilometres northwest of the City of Adelaide. It lies within the City of Port Adelaide Enfield and is the main port for the city of Adelaide...

. In addition, houses for public officials and missionaries, and outstations for police and surveyors were also constructed during Gawler's governorship. Adelaide had also become economically self-sufficient during this period, but at heavy cost: as a result of Gawler's public works the colony was heavily in debt and relied on bail-outs from London to stay afloat. Gawler was recalled and replaced by Governor Grey
George Edward Grey
Sir George Grey, KCB was a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony , the 11th Premier of New Zealand and a writer.-Early life and exploration:...

 in 1841. Grey slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its impact was negligible at this point: silver was discovered in Glen Osmond
Glen Osmond, South Australia
Glen Osmond is a small suburb of Adelaide, South Australia in the City of Burnside located in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills.-References:...

 that year, agricultural was well underway, and other mines sprung up all over the state, aiding Adelaide's commercial development. The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in 1845, contrasting with a low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide houses were abandoned.
Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established with the Murray River
Murray River
The Murray River is Australia's longest river. At in length, the Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains and, for most of its length, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between New South Wales and Victoria as it...

 being successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell
Francis Cadell (explorer)
Francis Cadell was a European explorer of Australia, most remembered for opening the Murray River up for transport by steamship.- Early life :...

, an Adelaide resident. South Australia became a self-governing colony
Self-governing colony
A self-governing colony is a colony with an elected legislature, in which politicians are able to make most decisions without reference to the colonial power with formal or nominal control of the colony...

 in 1856 with the ratification of a new constitution by the British parliament. Secret ballot
Secret ballot
The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are anonymous. The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery. The system is one means of achieving the goal of...

s were introduced, and a bicameral
Bicameralism
In the government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of two chambers or houses....

 parliament was elected on 9 March 1857, by which time 109,917 people lived in the province.

In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the now turbid River Torrens. In 1867 gas street lighting was implemented, the University of Adelaide
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

 was founded in 1874, the South Australian Art Gallery opened in 1881 and the Happy Valley Reservoir
Happy Valley Reservoir
Constructed when the total population of Adelaide numbered 315,200 the Happy Valley Reservoir now supplies over a half a million people, from Adelaide's southern extent to the city-centre.-Construction:...

 opened in 1896. In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism. Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed. The national fertility rate fell and immigration was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia's exports nearly halved. Drought and poor harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia. Adelaide was not as badly hit as the larger gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and silver and lead discoveries at Broken Hill
Broken Hill, New South Wales
-Geology:Broken Hill's massive orebody, which formed about 1,800 million years ago, has proved to be among the world's largest silver-lead-zinc mineral deposits. The orebody is shaped like a boomerang plunging into the earth at its ends and outcropping in the centre. The protruding tip of the...

 provided some relief. Only one year of deficit was recorded, but the price paid was retrenchments and lean public spending. Wine and copper were the only industries not to suffer a downturn.

20th century

Electric street lighting was introduced in 1900 and electric trams were transporting passengers in 1909. 28,000 men were sent to fight in World War I. Adelaide enjoyed a post-war boom but, with the return of droughts, entered the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

 of the 1930s, later returning to prosperity under strong government leadership. Secondary industries
Secondary sector of industry
The secondary sector of the economy or industrial sector includes those economic sectors that create a finished, tangible product: production and construction.-Function:...

 helped reduce the state's dependence on primary industries
Primary sector of industry
The sector of an economy making direct use of natural resources. This includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, and extraction of oil and gas. This is contrasted with the secondary sector, producing manufactures and other processed goods, and the tertiary sector, producing services...

. World War II brought industrial stimulus and diversification to Adelaide under the Playford
Thomas Playford IV
Sir Thomas Playford, GCMG was a South Australian politician. He served continuously as Premier of South Australia from 5 November 1938 to 10 March 1965, the longest term of any elected government leader in the history of Australia. His tenure as premier was marked by a period of population and...

 Government, which advocated Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to its less vulnerable location. Seventy thousand men and women enlisted and shipbuilding was expanded at the nearby port of Whyalla
Whyalla, South Australia
-Demographics:According to the 2006 Census the population of the Whyalla census area was 21,122 people, making it the second largest urban area in the state outside of Adelaide...

.

The South Australian Government in this period built on former wartime manufacturing industries. International manufacturers like General Motors Holden
Holden
GM Holden Ltd is an automaker that operates in Australia, based in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, before becoming a subsidiary of the U.S.-based General Motors in 1931...

 and Chrysler
Chrysler Australia
Chrysler Australia is the importer of Chrysler, Jeep and Dodge vehicles for sale in the Australian marketplace. However, there had previously been a "Chrysler Australia Ltd" which had operated as a vehicle manufacturer in Australia from 1951 until 1980....

 made use of these factories around Adelaide, completing its transformation from an agricultural service centre to a twentieth-century city. A pipeline from Mannum
Mannum, South Australia
Mannum is an historic town on the west bank of the Murray River in South Australia, east of Adelaide. At the 2006 census, Mannum had a population of 2,042. Mannum headquarters the Mid Murray Council, and is situated in both the State Electoral District of Schubert and the federal Division of...

 brought River Murray water to Adelaide in 1954 and an airport
Adelaide International Airport
Adelaide Airport is the principal airport in the South Australian capital of Adelaide and the fifth busiest airport in Australia, servicing 7,362,000 passengers in the year ending 30 June 2011. Located adjacent to West Beach, it is approximately west of the city-centre...

 opened at West Beach
West Beach, South Australia
West Beach is a seaside suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in both the City of Charles Sturt and the City of West Torrens.-History:...

 in 1955. An assisted migration scheme brought 215,000 immigrants of many nationalities, mainly European, to South Australia between 1947 and 1973.

The Dunstan Governments
Don Dunstan
Donald Allan "Don" Dunstan, AC, QC was a South Australian politician. He entered politics as the Member for Norwood in 1953, became state Labor leader in 1967, and was Premier of South Australia between June 1967 and April 1968, and again between June 1970 and February 1979.The son of a business...

 of the 1970s saw something of an Adelaide 'cultural revival' – establishing a wide array of social reforms and overseeing the city becoming a centre of the arts, building upon the biennial "Adelaide Festival of Arts
Adelaide Festival of Arts
The Adelaide Festival of Arts is an arts festival held biennially in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Although locally considered to be one of the world's greatest celebrations of the arts, that is internationally renowned and the pre-eminent cultural event in Australia, it is actually...

" which commenced in 1960. Adelaide hosted the Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 Australian Grand Prix
Australian Grand Prix
The Australian Grand Prix is a motor race held annually and is held to be the pinnacle of motor racing in Australia. The Grand Prix is the oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia having been held 76 times since it was first run at Phillip Island in 1928. Since 1985 the race has...

 between 1985 and 1996 on a street circuit in the city's east parklands, before tough economic conditions due to the state bank collapse. The 1991 State Bank
State Bank of South Australia
The State Bank of South Australia was a bank owned by the Government of South Australia. Its collapse in 1991 was a major political event in South Australia...

 collapse plunged both Adelaide and South Australia into economic recession, and its effects lasted until 2004, when ratings agency Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's is a United States-based financial services company. It is a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies that publishes financial research and analysis on stocks and bonds. It is well known for its stock-market indices, the US-based S&P 500, the Australian S&P/ASX 200, the Canadian...

 reinstated South Australia's AAA credit rating. Recent years have seen the Clipsal 500 V8 Supercars race make use of sections of the former Formula One circuit.

Geography

Adelaide is located north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. The city stretches 20 km (12.4 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 90 km (55.9 mi) from Gawler
Gawler, South Australia
Gawler is the first country town in the state of South Australia, and is named after the second Governor of the colony of South Australia, George Gawler. It is located north of the centre of the state capital, Adelaide, and is close to the major wine producing district of the Barossa Valley...

 at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach
Sellicks Beach, South Australia
Sellicks Beach is a town in South Australia, close to Aldinga, and representing the southernmost extent of the Adelaide urban conurbation. At the 2006 census, Sellicks Beach had a population of 1,622....

 in the south. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Bureau of Statistics
The Australian Bureau of Statistics is Australia's national statistical agency. It was created as the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics on 8 December 1905, when the Census and Statistics Act 1905 was given Royal assent. It had its beginnings in section 51 of the Constitution of Australia...

, the Adelaide Metropolitan Region has a total land area of 870 km² (335.9 sq mi), and is at an average elevation of 50 metres (164 ft) above sea level. Mount Lofty
Mount Lofty
Mount Lofty is the highest point in the Mount Lofty Ranges. It is located about 15km east of the centre of the city of Adelaide in South Australia and gives unrivalled panoramic views of the city and the Adelaide plains and foothills. It was first climbed by a European when explorer Collet Barker...

 is located east of the Adelaide metropolitan region in the Adelaide Hills at an elevation of 727 metres (2,385.2 ft). It is the tallest point of the city and in the state south of Burra
Burra, South Australia
Burra is a pastoral centre and historic tourist town in the mid-north of South Australia. It lies east of the Clare Valley in the Bald Hills range, part of the northern Mount Lofty Ranges, and on Burra Creek. The town began as a single company mining township that, by 1851, was a set of townships ...

.

Much of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement, with some variation – swamps and marshlands were prevalent around the coast. However, much of the original vegetation has been cleared with what is left to be found in reserves such as the Cleland Conservation Park
Cleland Conservation Park
Cleland Conservation Park is a conservation park in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. from Adelaide City centre. Cleland Conservation Park conserves a significant area of natural bushland on the Adelaide Hills face and includes the internationally popular Cleland Wildlife Park and the popular...

 and Belair National Park
Belair National Park
Belair National Park is a national park in South Australia , 13 km south of Adelaide, covering an 835ha area. It was proclaimed in 1891 and was the first National Park in South Australia, second in Australia and the tenth in the world...

. A number of creeks and rivers flow through the Adelaide region. The largest are the Torrens and Onkaparinga
Onkaparinga River National Park
Onkaparinga River National Park is in South Australia , 32 km south of Adelaide and incorporates the Onkaparinga River Recreation Park.-History:...

 catchments. Adelaide relies on its many reservoirs for water supply with the Happy Valley Reservoir
Happy Valley Reservoir
Constructed when the total population of Adelaide numbered 315,200 the Happy Valley Reservoir now supplies over a half a million people, from Adelaide's southern extent to the city-centre.-Construction:...

 supplying around 40% and the much larger Mount Bold Reservoir
Mount Bold Reservoir
-2007 fire:A bushfire ravaged the Mount Bold Valley area, which includes the properties between Kangarilla and Echunga, during the second week of January 2007. The fire destroyed two houses, gutted over ten sheds and killed livestock and horses. Two people were injured and fencing was damaged. The...

 10% of Adelaide's domestic requirements respectively.

Urban layout

Adelaide is a planned city, designed by the first surveyor-general of South Australia, Colonel William Light
William Light
Colonel William Light was a British military officer and the first Surveyor-General of the Colony of South Australia...

. His plan, now known as Light's Vision, arranged Adelaide in a grid, with five squares in the Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre
The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

 and a ring of parks, known as the Adelaide Parklands, surrounding it. Light's design was initially unpopular with the early settlers, as well as South Australia's first Governor, John Hindmarsh. Light persisted with his design against this initial opposition.

The benefits of Light's design are numerous; Adelaide has had wide multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily navigable grid layout and a beautiful green ring around the city centre. There are two sets of ring roads in Adelaide that have resulted from the original design. The inner ring route
City Ring Route, Adelaide
The City Ring Route is a South Australian state route that loops around the Adelaide city centre and North Adelaide.The route is a collection of major arterial roads...

 (A21) borders the parklands, and the outer route (A3/A13
South Road, Adelaide
South Road is a major north–south conduit in Adelaide, South Australia. Also known as Main South Road, it is Adelaide's most important arterial road.- Route :...

/A16/A17) completely bypasses the inner city via (in clockwise order) Grand Junction Road, Hampstead Road, Ascot Avenue, Portrush Road, Cross Road
Cross Road, Adelaide
Cross Road is a major arterial road that travels east-west through the inner southern suburbs of the Australian city of Adelaide. Its western terminus is at Anzac Highway, travelling east and ending at Glen Osmond and the Adelaide Hills, joining the junction of Glen Osmond Road, Portrush Road, and...

 and South Road
South Road, Adelaide
South Road is a major north–south conduit in Adelaide, South Australia. Also known as Main South Road, it is Adelaide's most important arterial road.- Route :...

.

Suburban expansion has to some extent outgrown Light's original plan. Numerous former outlying villages and "country towns", and the satellite city of Elizabeth
Elizabeth, South Australia
Elizabeth is a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Playford.-History:Elizabeth was established in 1955 as part of a planned satellite town by the South Australian Housing Trust on rural land between the older towns of Salisbury and...

, have been enveloped by its suburban sprawl
Urban sprawl
Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a multifaceted concept, which includes the spreading outwards of a city and its suburbs to its outskirts to low-density and auto-dependent development on rural land, high segregation of uses Urban sprawl, also known as suburban sprawl, is a...

. Expanding developments in the Adelaide Hills region led to the construction of the South Eastern Freeway
South Eastern Freeway
The South Eastern Freeway is a 66 kilometre four-lane divided carriageway road in South Australia linking the Adelaide-Crafers Highway to the Princes Highway at the Swanport Bridge, a one kilometre long bridge over the River Murray, near Murray Bridge...

 to cope with growth, which has subsequently led to new developments and further improvements to that transport corridor. Similarly, the booming development in Adelaide's South
City of Onkaparinga
The City of Onkaparinga is a local government area located on the southern fringe of Adelaide, South Australia. It is named after the Onkaparinga River, whose name comes from Ngangkiparinga, a Kaurna word meaning "The Women's River"...

 led to the construction of the Southern Expressway
Southern Expressway
The Southern Expressway is the world's longest reversible one way freeway. Originally proposed as 'Noarlunga Freeway', it was built as a corridor to relieve heavy traffic from the major arterial, Main South Road, in Adelaide's south. The expressway was built in two stages — the first...

.
New roads are not the only transport infrastructure developed to cope with the urban growth. The O-Bahn Busway
O-Bahn Busway
The Adelaide O-Bahn Busway is a guided busway located in Adelaide, South Australia. The O-Bahn – from the Latin omnibus and the German bahn – was conceived by Daimler-Benz to enable buses to avoid traffic congestion by sharing tram tunnels in the German city of Essen.The route was introduced in...

 is an example of a unique solution to Tea Tree Gully's
Tea Tree Gully, South Australia
Tea Tree Gully is a suburb in the greater Adelaide, South Australia area, under the City of Tea Tree Gully. Tea Tree Gully is in the City of Tea Tree Gully local government area, the South Australian House of Assembly electoral district of Newland and the Australian House of Representatives...

 transport woes in the 1980s. The development of the nearby suburb of Golden Grove
Golden Grove, South Australia
Golden Grove is an outer north-eastern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia and is within the City of Tea Tree Gully local government area. It is adjacent to Wynn Vale, Surrey Downs, Greenwith, Yatala Vale, Fairview Park, and Salisbury East.- History :...

 in the late 1980s is possibly an example of well-thought-out urban planning. The newer suburban areas as a whole, however, are not as integrated into the urban layout as much as older areas, and therefore place more stress on Adelaide's transportation system – although not on a level comparable with Melbourne or Sydney.
In the 1960s a Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study
Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study
The Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study, or "MATS Plan" as it became known, was a comprehensive transport plan released in 1968 examining the then-current and future needs of transport for the city of Adelaide....

 Plan was proposed in order to cater for the future growth of the city. The plan involved the construction of freeways, expressways and the upgrade of certain aspects of the public transport system. The then premier Steele Hall
Steele Hall
Raymond Steele Hall was the 36th Premier of South Australia 1968-70, a senator for South Australia 1974-77, and federal member for the Division of Boothby 1981-96.-Biography:...

 approved many parts of the plan and the government went as far as purchasing land for the project. The later government elected under Don Dunstan
Don Dunstan
Donald Allan "Don" Dunstan, AC, QC was a South Australian politician. He entered politics as the Member for Norwood in 1953, became state Labor leader in 1967, and was Premier of South Australia between June 1967 and April 1968, and again between June 1970 and February 1979.The son of a business...

 shelved the plan, but allowed the purchased land to remain vacant, should the future need for freeways arise. Some parts of this land have been used for transport, (e.g. the O-Bahn Busway and Southern Expressway), while other parts have been progressively subdivided for residential use.

In 2008 the SA Government
Government of South Australia
The form of the Government of South Australia is prescribed in its constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then...

 announced plans for a network of transport-oriented developments across the Adelaide metropolitan area and purchased a 10 hectare industrial site
Clipsal site development
The Clipsal site development is an urban development projected to take place on the former site of the Clipsal corporation in the suburb of Bowden, within the City of Charles Sturt, in the Adelaide metropolitan area of South Australia...

 at Bowden
Bowden, South Australia
Bowden is an inner northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Charles Sturt.-History:The 'Village of Bowden' was established in 1839 by James Hurtle Fisher, who named it after his native village in Northamptonshire....

 for $52.5 million as the first of these developments.

Climate

Adelaide has a warm Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Csa), where most of the rain falls in the winter months. Of the Australian capital cities, Adelaide is the driest, however it receives enough annual precipitation to avoid Köppen's BSh (semi-arid climate) classification . Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout summer. In contrast, the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with June being the wettest month of the year, averaging around 80 mm. Frosts are occasional, with the most notable occurrences having occurred in July 1908 and July 1982. Hail is also common in winter. There is usually no appreciable snowfall, except for very light falls at Mount Lofty and some places in the Adelaide Hills.

Governance

Adelaide, as the capital of South Australia, is the seat of the Government of South Australia
Government of South Australia
The form of the Government of South Australia is prescribed in its constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then...

. As Adelaide is South Australia's capital and most populous city, the State Government co-operates extensively with the City of Adelaide
City of Adelaide
The City of Adelaide is a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. It covers the original Adelaide city centre settlement, , North Adelaide, and the Adelaide Park Lands which surround North Adelaide and the city centre.Established in 1840, the organisation now...

. In 2006, the Ministry for the City of Adelaide was created to facilitate the state government's collaboration with the Adelaide City Council and the Lord Mayor to improve Adelaide's image. The state parliament's Capital City Committee is also involved in the governance of the City of Adelaide, being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide's urban development and growth.

Local governments

The Adelaide metropolitan area is divided between eighteen local government areas
Local Government Areas of South Australia
This is a list of Local Government Areas in South Australia. The LGAs are grouped by region, as defined by the Local Government Association of South Australia.-LGAs sorted by region:-External links:* *...

, including, at its centre, the City of Adelaide
City of Adelaide
The City of Adelaide is a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. It covers the original Adelaide city centre settlement, , North Adelaide, and the Adelaide Park Lands which surround North Adelaide and the city centre.Established in 1840, the organisation now...

, which administers the Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre
The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

, North Adelaide
North Adelaide
North Adelaide is a predominantly residential precinct of the City of Adelaide in South Australia, situated north of the River Torrens and within the Adelaide Park Lands.-History:...

, and the surrounding Adelaide Parklands. It is the oldest municipal authority in Australia and was established in 1840, when Adelaide and Australia's first mayor, James Hurtle Fisher
James Hurtle Fisher
Sir James Hurtle Fisher was a lawyer and prominent South Australian pioneer. He was the first Resident Commissioner of South Australia, the first Mayor of Adelaide and the first resident South Australian to be knighted....

, was elected. From 1919 onwards, the City has had a Lord Mayor, the current being Lord Mayor Stephen Yarwood.

Demography

As of 2006 Census, Adelaide had a metropolitan population of more than 1,105,839, making it Australia's fifth largest city. In the 2002–03 period the population grew by 0.6%, while the national average was 1.2%. Some 70.3% of the population of South Australia are residents of the Adelaide metropolitan area, making South Australia one of the most centralised states.

Major areas of population growth in recent years were in outer suburbs such as Mawson Lakes
Mawson Lakes, South Australia
Mawson Lakes is a suburb and new residential development in the City of Salisbury, Adelaide, with the first land being released in 1998. It has a census area population of 5,246 people. The suburb is located in the northern suburbs of Adelaide around 12 km north of the Central business...

 and Golden Grove. Adelaide's inhabitants occupy 341,227 houses, 54,826 semi-detached, row terrace or town houses and 49,327 flats, units or apartments.

High socioeconomic areas include a number of the coastal suburbs, most of the inner north-eastern, eastern, south-eastern and inner southern suburbs, the Adelaide hills and North Adelaide
North Adelaide
North Adelaide is a predominantly residential precinct of the City of Adelaide in South Australia, situated north of the River Torrens and within the Adelaide Park Lands.-History:...

. Almost a fifth (17.9%) of the population had university qualifications. The number of Adelaideans with vocational qualifications (such as tradespersons) fell from 62.1% of the labour force in the 1991 census to 52.4% in the 2001 census.

Overseas-born Adelaideans composed 23.7% (262,367) of the total population. The north-western suburbs (such as Woodville
Woodville, South Australia
Woodville is a suburb of Adelaide, situated about 8 kilometres northwest of the Central Business District of Adelaide. It lies within the City of Charles Sturt. The postcode of Woodville is 5011...

 and Athol Park
Athol Park, South Australia
Athol Park is a north-western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Charles Sturt.-Geography:The suburb lies at the western end of Grand Junction Road, which also forms its northern boundary...

) and suburbs close to the CBD have a higher ratio of overseas-born residents. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from England (7.3%), Italy (1.9%), Scotland (1.0%), Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 (0.9%), and Greece (0.9%). The most-spoken languages other than English
Australian English
Australian English is the name given to the group of dialects spoken in Australia that form a major variety of the English language....

 were Italian (3.0%), Greek (2.2%), Vietnamese
Vietnamese language
Vietnamese is the national and official language of Vietnam. It is the mother tongue of 86% of Vietnam's population, and of about three million overseas Vietnamese. It is also spoken as a second language by many ethnic minorities of Vietnam...

 (1.2%), Mandarin (0.8%), and Cantonese (0.7%).

Religion

Approximately 24% of the population expressed no religious affiliation, compared with the national average of 18.7%, although ironically the large number of churches in Adelaide has led people to believe this is the source of the nickname The City of Churches.
Nevertheless, over half of the population of Adelaide identifies as Christian, with the largest denominations being Catholic
Roman Catholic Church in Australia
The Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual and administrative leadership of the Pope.Australia is a majority Christian but pluralistic society with no established religion. There are approximately 5.1 million Australian Catholics . Catholicism...

 (22.1%), Anglican
Anglican Church of Australia
The Anglican Church of Australia is a member church of the Anglican Communion. It was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania...

 (14.0%), Uniting Church
Uniting Church in Australia
The Uniting Church in Australia was formed on 22 June 1977 when many congregations of the Methodist Church of Australasia, the Presbyterian Church of Australia and the Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union....

 (8.4%) and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox Church
The Orthodox Church, officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church and commonly referred to as the Eastern Orthodox Church, is the second largest Christian denomination in the world, with an estimated 300 million adherents mainly in the countries of Belarus, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece,...

 (3.8%).

Age structure

Overall, Adelaide is ageing more rapidly than other Australian capital cities. Just over a quarter (26.7%) of Adelaide's population is aged 55 years or older, in comparison to the national average of 24.3%. Adelaide has the lowest number of children (under-15 year olds), which composed 17.8% of the population, compared to the national average of 19.8%.

Economy

South Australia's largest employment sector is health care and social assistance, surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07. In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance. Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment.

The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce.

Manufacturing, defence technology and research, commodity export and corresponding service industries play a role in the SA economy. Almost half of all cars produced in Australia are made in Adelaide at the General Motors Holden plant in Elizabeth
Elizabeth, South Australia
Elizabeth is a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Playford.-History:Elizabeth was established in 1955 as part of a planned satellite town by the South Australian Housing Trust on rural land between the older towns of Salisbury and...

. Adelaide has over 40% of Australia's high-tech electronics industry which designs and produces electronic systems that are sold worldwide for applications in medical, communications, defence, automotive, food and wine processing and industrial sectors. The revenue of Adelaide's electronics industry has grown at over 15% per annum since 1990, and in 2010 exceeds A$5 billion. The electronics industry in Adelaide employs over 14,000 people.

The global media conglomerate News Corporation
News Corporation
News Corporation or News Corp. is an American multinational media conglomerate. It is the world's second-largest media conglomerate as of 2011 in terms of revenue, and the world's third largest in entertainment as of 2009, although the BBC remains the world's largest broadcaster...

 was founded in and until 2004 incorporated in Adelaide and is still considered its 'spiritual' home by Rupert Murdoch
Rupert Murdoch
Keith Rupert Murdoch, AC, KSG is an Australian-American business magnate. He is the founder and Chairman and CEO of , the world's second-largest media conglomerate....

. Australia's largest oil company, Santos, prominent South Australian brewery, Coopers
Coopers Brewery
Coopers Brewery is an Australian beer company. Its shares are primarily owned by the extended Cooper family, and the company's constitution and classes of shares makes it difficult to sell shares outside the family. Coopers is known for making a variety of high quality beers, the most famous of...

, major national retailer Harris Scarfe
Harris Scarfe
Harris Scarfe Department Stores was founded in Adelaide, South Australia in 1849. At its peak, Adelaide was home to several major South Australian department stores , of which Harris Scarfe is the sole...

 and Australia's second largest listed investment company Argo Investments Limited
Argo Investments Limited
Argo Investments Limited is an Australian listed investment company , which trades its shares on the Australian Stock Exchange . Their diversified portfolio of shares are selected for profitability and long-term growth prospects at cost-effective prices...

 call Adelaide their home.

The collapse of the State Bank in 1992
State Bank of South Australia
The State Bank of South Australia was a bank owned by the Government of South Australia. Its collapse in 1991 was a major political event in South Australia...

 resulted in large levels of state public debt (as much as A$4 billion). The collapse had meant that successive governments had enacted lean budgets, cutting spending, which had been a setback to the further economic development of the city and state. The debt has recently been reduced with the State Government once again receiving a AAA+ Credit Rating. The South Australian economy, very closely tied to Adelaide's, still enjoys a trade surplus and has higher per capita growth than Australia as a whole.

Defence industry

Adelaide is home to a large proportion of Australia's defence industries, which contribute over A$1 billion to South Australia's Gross State Product. Seventy-two percent of Australian defence companies are located in Adelaide. The principal government military research institution, the Defence Science and Technology Organisation
Defence Science and Technology Organisation
The Defence Science and Technology Organisation is a branch of the Australian Department of Defence which researches and develops technologies for use in the Australian defence industry....

, and other defence technology organisations such as BAE Systems Australia
BAE Systems Australia
BAE Systems Australia, a subsidiary of BAE Systems plc, is the largest defence contractor in Australia. It was formed by the merger of British Aerospace Australia and GEC-Marconi Systems and expanded by the acquisitions of Armor Holdings in 2007 and Tenix Defence in June 2008.-History:BAE Systems'...

 and Lockheed Martin Australia, are located north of Salisbury and west of Elizabeth in an area now called "Edinburgh Parks", adjacent to RAAF Base Edinburgh
RAAF Base Edinburgh
RAAF Base Edinburgh is located in Edinburgh, 25km north of the centre of Adelaide.It is primarily home to No 92 Wing's AP-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft that conduct surveillance operations throughout Australia's airspace....

.

Others, such as Saab Systems and Raytheon, are located in or near Technology Park. The Australian Submarine Corporation
Australian Submarine Corporation
The ASC, formerly Australian Submarine Corporation, is a wholly government-owned Australian naval defence company headquartered at Osborne in Adelaide, South Australia.-History:...

, based in the industrial suburb of Osborne
Osborne, South Australia
Osborne is a north-western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 19 km from the CBD, in the City of Port Adelaide Enfield. It is on the LeFevre Peninsula, adjacent to Outer Harbor, Taperoo and North Haven...

, was charged with constructing Australia's Collins class submarines
Collins class submarine
The Collins class is a class of six Australian-built diesel-electric submarines operated by the Royal Australian Navy . The Collins class takes its name from Australian Vice Admiral John Augustine Collins; all six submarines are named after significant RAN personnel who distinguished themselves in...

 and more recently the A$6 billion contract to construct the Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces...

's new air-warfare destroyers.

Employment statistics

There are 466,829 employed people in Adelaide, with 62.3% full-time and 35.1% part-time. In recent years there has been a growing trend towards part-time (which includes casual) employment, increasing from 11.6% of the workplace in 1991, to over a third today.

The median weekly individual income for people aged 15 years and over is $447 per week, compared with $466 nationally. The median family income is $1,137 per week, compared with $1,171 nationally. Adelaide's housing and living costs are substantially lower than that of other Australian cities, with housing being notably cheaper. The median Adelaide house price is half that of Sydney and two-thirds that of Melbourne. The three month trend unemployment rate to March 2007 was 6.2%. The Northern suburbs' unemployment rate is disproportionately higher than the other regions of Adelaide at 8.3%, while the East and South are lower than the Adelaide average at 4.9% and 5.0% respectively.

House prices

Over the decade March 2001 – March 2010, Metropolitan Adelaide median house prices have approximately tripled. (approx. 285%) In summary:
March 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Median 140,000 170,000 200,000 250,000 270,000 280,000 300,000 360,000 350,000 400,000
% change 21% 18% 25% 8% 4% 7% 20% −3% 14%

All numbers approximate and rounded

Education and research

Education forms an increasingly important part of the city's economy, with the South Australian Government and educational institutions attempting to position Adelaide as "Australia's education hub" and marketing it as a "Learning City." The number of international students studying in Adelaide has increased rapidly in recent years to 23,300, of which 2,380 are secondary school students. In addition to the city's existing institutions, foreign institutions have been attracted to set up campuses in order to increase its attractiveness as an education hub.

Primary and secondary education

At the level of primary and secondary education, there are two systems of school education. There is a public system operated by the South Australian Government and a private system of independent and Catholic school
Catholic school
Catholic schools are maintained parochial schools or education ministries of the Catholic Church. the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system...

s. All schools provide education under the South Australian Certificate of Education
South Australian Certificate of Education
The South Australian Certificate of Education is awarded to students who have successfully completed their senior secondary schooling in the state of South Australia....

 (SACE) or, to a lesser extent, the International Baccalaureate (IB), with Adelaide having the highest number of IB schools in Australia.

Tertiary education

There are several South Australian TAFE
TAFE South Australia
TAFE South Australia provides vocational education and training in South Australia. The acronym TAFE stands for Technical and Further Education and is used and recognised nationally throughout Australia....

 (Technical and Further Education) campuses located in the metropolitan area which provide a range of vocational education and training. There are three public universities local to Adelaide, as well as three constituent colleges of three foreign universities. The Flinders University of South Australia, the University of Adelaide
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

 and the University of South Australia
University of South Australia
The University of South Australia is a public university in the Australian state of South Australia. It was formed in 1991 with the merger of the South Australian Institute of Technology and Colleges of Advanced Education. It is the largest university in South Australia, with more than 36,000...

 are based in Adelaide and were all ranked within the world's top 400 universities in the Times Higher Education magazine in 2007. The historic Torrens Building in Victoria Square
Victoria Square, Adelaide
Victoria Square is a public square in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. The square is in the centre of the city's grid of one square mile, and was named by the Street Naming Committee on 23 May 1837 after Princess Victoria, heir presumptive of the British throne. Less than a month later the...

 houses Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

's Heinz College Australia, Cranfield University
Cranfield University
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on two campuses, with a research-oriented focus. The main campus is at Cranfield, Bedfordshire and the second is the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom based at Shrivenham, Oxfordshire. The main campus is unique in the United...

's Defence College of Management and Technology
Defence College of Management and Technology
The Defence Academy - College of Management and Technology is a British postgraduate school, research institution and training provider formed in 2009 from five departments of the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, and as such part of the British Armed Forces. Since 1984 Cranfield University...

, and University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and constitute the city's international university precinct.

The University of Adelaide
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

, with 20,478 students, is Australia's third-oldest university, and a member of the leading "Group of Eight
Group of Eight (Australian universities)
The Group of Eight is a coalition of leading Australian tertiary institutions, intensive in research and comprehensive in general and professional education...

". It has five campuses throughout the state, including two in the city-centre, and also has a campus in Singapore. The University of South Australia
University of South Australia
The University of South Australia is a public university in the Australian state of South Australia. It was formed in 1991 with the merger of the South Australian Institute of Technology and Colleges of Advanced Education. It is the largest university in South Australia, with more than 36,000...

, with 36,000 students, has two North Terrace campuses, three other campuses in the metropolitan area and campuses at Whyalla
Whyalla, South Australia
-Demographics:According to the 2006 Census the population of the Whyalla census area was 21,122 people, making it the second largest urban area in the state outside of Adelaide...

 and Mount Gambier
Mount Gambier, South Australia
Mount Gambier is the largest regional city in South Australia located approximately 450 kilometres south of the capital Adelaide and just 17 kilometres from the Victorian border....

. The Flinders University of South Australia, with 16,237 students, is located in the southern suburb of Bedford Park
Bedford Park, South Australia
Bedford Park is a southern suburb of Adelaide in South Australia.The Hancock family established a homestead and farm at the foot of the Adelaide Hills in the mid 19th century. A family name from an earlier generation lent its name to the property of Bedford which was later changed to Bedford Park...

, alongside the Flinders Medical Centre
Flinders Medical Centre
Flinders Medical Centre is a 580 bed public teaching hospital and medical school, co-located with Flinders University and the 130 bed Flinders Private Hospital located at Bedford Park, South Australia. It opened in 1976. It is one of the major public hospitals operating in metropolitan Adelaide...

.

Carnegie Mellon
Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States....

 became the first American university to establish a campus in Australia when it established two postgraduate campuses in the Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre
The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

 in 2006: the Heinz College Australia in Victoria Square and the Entertainment Technology Center (sic) in Light Square
Light Square, Adelaide
Light Square is one of five squares in the City of Adelaide. Located in the centre of the north-western quarter of the Adelaide city centre, the Square is named after the city's planner, Colonel William Light....

. Cranfield University
Cranfield University
Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on two campuses, with a research-oriented focus. The main campus is at Cranfield, Bedfordshire and the second is the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom based at Shrivenham, Oxfordshire. The main campus is unique in the United...

 followed suit in 2007 and established a postgraduate campus in Victoria Square alongside the Heinz College. University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 established its first international campus (alongside CMU and Cranfield) in 2009, with postgraduate courses commencing in 2010. The two hundred year-old Royal Institution of Great Britain
Royal Institution
The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organization devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.-Overview:...

 is also establishing an Australian counterpart in Adelaide which will formally open in 2009.

Research

In addition to the universities, there are a number of organisations involved in research with significant establishments in the metropolitan area. These tend to be geographically clustered:
  • Located at the east end of North Terrace
    North Terrace, Adelaide
    North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central business and residential district of the city of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It runs east-west, along the northern edge of the CBD.-North Side of North Terrace:...

    : IMVS
    Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science
    Established in 1938, is a wholly South Australian medically-led network of pathology laboratories, providing the people of metropolitan and rural South Australia with comprehensive quality pathology and integrated clinical services....

    ; Hanson Institute; RAH
    Royal Adelaide Hospital
    The Royal Adelaide Hospital is Adelaide's largest hospital, with 680 beds. Founded in 1840, the Royal Adelaide provides tertiary health care services for South Australia and provides secondary care clinical services to residents of Adelaide's city centre and inner suburbs.The hospital is situated...

    ; National Wine Centre
    National Wine Centre of Australia
    The National Wine Centre of Australia is a public exhibition building about winemaking and its industry in South Australia. It contains an interactive permanent exhibition of winemaking, introducing visitors to the technology, varieties and styles of wine...

    .
  • Located in the Waite Research Precinct: SARDI
    South Australian Research and Development Institute
    The South Australian Research and Development Institute is a state government funded institute with locations throughout South Australia...

     Head Office and Plant Research Centre; AWRI
    Australian Wine Research Institute
    The Australian Wine Research Institute , established in 1955, is owned by the country’s wine industry and is funded by grape growers and wineries with matching funds from the federal government...

    ; ACPFG
    Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics
    The Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics is a research organisation focusing on improving the resistance of wheat and barley to hostile environmental conditions, using functional genomics technologies....

    ; CSIRO research laboratories. SARDI also have establisments at Glenside
    Glenside, South Australia
    Glenside is a suburb in the City of Burnside, Adelaide, South Australia, around 2 kilometres south-east of the Central business district, home to 2,985 people in a total land area of 1.40 km²....

     and West Beach
    West Beach, South Australia
    West Beach is a seaside suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in both the City of Charles Sturt and the City of West Torrens.-History:...

    .
  • Located in Edinburgh, South Australia
    Edinburgh, South Australia
    Edinburgh is a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is an industrial suburb dominated by RAAF Base Edinburgh and DSTO Edinburgh.It was split from the suburb of Salisbury in 1997 when the Department of Defence decided to rationalise the then "DSTO Salisbury" site and sell off about 70%...

    : DSTO
    Defence Science and Technology Organisation
    The Defence Science and Technology Organisation is a branch of the Australian Department of Defence which researches and develops technologies for use in the Australian defence industry....

    ; BAE Systems
    BAE Systems
    BAE Systems plc is a British multinational defence, security and aerospace company headquartered in London, United Kingdom, that has global interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. BAE is among the world's largest military contractors; in 2009 it was the...

     (Australia); Lockheed Martin
    Lockheed Martin
    Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

     Australia Electronic Systems.
  • Located at Technology Park (Mawson Lakes
    Mawson Lakes, South Australia
    Mawson Lakes is a suburb and new residential development in the City of Salisbury, Adelaide, with the first land being released in 1998. It has a census area population of 5,246 people. The suburb is located in the northern suburbs of Adelaide around 12 km north of the Central business...

    ): BAE Systems; Optus
    Optus
    SingTel Optus Pty Limited is the second largest telecommunications company in Australia, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Singapore Telecommunications...

    ; Raytheon
    Raytheon
    Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

    ; Topcon
    Topcon
    Topcon is a Japanese manufacturer of optical equipment for ophthalmology and surveying. Their headquarters are in Itabashi, Tokyo. They are affiliated with Toshiba, which holds 40% of Topcon's stock.-History of Topcon:...

    ; Lockheed Martin Australia Electronic Systems.
  • Located in Research Park at Thebarton
    Thebarton, South Australia
    Thebarton is a suburb of the city of Adelaide, South Australia. The suburb is bounded by the River Torrens to the north, Port Road and Bonython Park to the east, Kintore Street to the south, and South Road to the west....

    : businesses involved in materials engineering, biotechnology, environmental services, information technology, industrial design, laser/optics technology, health products, engineering services, radar systems, telecommunications and petroleum services.
  • Located at Science Park (adjacent to Flinders University): Playford Capital.

Cultural

While established as a British province, and very much English in terms of its culture, Adelaide attracted immigrants from other parts of Europe early on, including German and other European non-conformists escaping religious persecution. The first German Lutherans arrived in 1838 bringing with them the vine cuttings that they used to found the acclaimed wineries of the Barossa Valley
Barossa Valley
The Barossa Valley is a major wine-producing region and tourist destination of South Australia, located 60 km northeast of Adelaide. It is the valley formed by the North Para River, and the Barossa Valley Way is the main road through the valley, connecting the main towns on the valley floor of...

.

After the Second World War, British, Italian, Greek, Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

, Polish and other European immigrants settled in Adelaide. The conclusion of the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 in 1975 saw an influx of Indo-Chinese immigrants to Adelaide. See: Immigration history of Australia

Arts and entertainment

Adelaide's arts scene flourished in the 1960s and 1970s with the support of successive premiers of both major political parties. The renowned Adelaide Festival of Arts
Adelaide Festival of Arts
The Adelaide Festival of Arts is an arts festival held biennially in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. Although locally considered to be one of the world's greatest celebrations of the arts, that is internationally renowned and the pre-eminent cultural event in Australia, it is actually...

 and Fringe Festival
Adelaide Fringe Festival
The Adelaide Fringe Festival is an arts festival held annually in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. The event is the Southern Hemisphere's largest arts event and the second-largest fringe festival in the world, second in size only to the Edinburgh Fringe...

 were established in 1960 under Thomas Playford. Construction of the Adelaide Festival Centre
Adelaide Festival Centre
The Adelaide Festival Centre, Australia's first multi-purpose arts centre, was built in 1973 and opened three months before the Sydney Opera House. The Festival Centre is located approximately 50 metres north of the corner of North Terrace and King William Street, lying near the banks of the River...

 began under Steele Hall in 1970, and was completed under the subsequent government of Don Dunstan, who also established the South Australian Film Corporation
South Australian Film Corporation
South Australian Film Corporation is a South Australian Government statutory corporation established in 1972. Former State Premier Don Dunstan played an instrumental role in the foundation of the Corporation and its early film production activities....

.

Over time, the Adelaide Festival has expanded to include the Adelaide Cabaret Festival
Adelaide Cabaret Festival
The Adelaide Cabaret Festival is an annual cabaret festival held in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. It is the largest festival of its type in the world, with more than 48,000 attendees....

, Adelaide Film Festival
Adelaide Film Festival
The Adelaide Film Festival is a biennial and non-competitive film festival held over two weeks in late February, in Adelaide, South Australia....

, Adelaide Festival of Ideas
Adelaide Festival of Ideas
The Adelaide Festival of Ideas has been held every two years since 1999 over a period of three or four days in October at venues throughout Adelaide in the alternate year to the long-established Adelaide Festival of Arts....

, Adelaide Writers' Week
Adelaide Writers' Week
Adelaide Writers' Week, held in the capital of South Australia and considered one of the world's pre-eminent literary events, is a traditional part of the Adelaide Festival of Arts fortnight where attendees meet and discuss literature with Australian and international writers in "Meet the Author"...

, and WOMADelaide
WOMADelaide
WOMADelaide is an annual world music and dance festival, which was first held in 1992 in Botanic Park, Adelaide, South Australia as part of the WOMAD series of music festivals. WOMAD events are a showcase of different sorts of music, arts and dance. They encourage people to experience the music of...

, all held predominately in the autumnal month of March (that month is sometimes jocularly called 'mad March' by locals due to the hectic clustering of these events). Other festivals include FEAST
Feast Festival
Feast Festival is a LGBTI Festival held annually in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. The event is one of Australia's four major queer festivals, alongside Perth's Pride Festival, Melbourne's Midsumma and the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras....

 (a queer culture
LGBT culture
LGBT culture, is the common culture shared by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people. It is sometimes also referred to as Queer culture. The term gay culture, though not synonymous, is sometimes also used though this may also apply specifically to the culture of homosexual men.LGBT...

 celebration), Tasting Australia
Tasting Australia
Tasting Australia is a biannual Australian wine and food festival held in the South Australian capital of Adelaide in October. It was launched in 1997 by Ian Parmenter and David Evans, for which they were awarded a Jaguar Award for Excellence in 2001 from the Gourmet Traveller...

 (a biennial food and wine affair), and the Royal Adelaide Show
Royal Adelaide Show
The Royal Adelaide Show also known as the Royal Show or simply The Show, is an annual agricultural show/fair held in Adelaide, South Australia that begins on the first Friday in September, or the last Friday in August, and runs for 9 days. It is held at the Royal Adelaide Showgrounds, located in...

 (an annual agricultural show
Agricultural show
An agricultural show is a public event showcasing the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with agriculture and animal husbandry. The largest comprise a livestock show , a trade fair, competitions, and entertainment...

 and state fair
State fair
A state fair is a competitive and recreational gathering of a U.S. state's population. It is a larger version of a county fair, often including only exhibits or competitors that have won in their categories at the more-local county fairs....

). There are also many international cultural fairs, most notably the German Schützenfest
Schützenfest
A Schützenfest is a traditional festival or fair featuring a target shooting competition in the cultures of both Germany and Switzerland....

 and Greek Glendi
Glendi
In Australia, Glendi is an annual weekend long festival that celebrates Greek culture in Australia. It is held in Adelaide during the month of March to commemorate Greece's Independence Day, and is the largest ethnic festival in South Australia. For over 30 years Glendi has been presenting Greek...

. Adelaide is also home to the Adelaide Christmas Pageant
Adelaide Christmas Pageant
The Adelaide Christmas Pageant is a parade held annually in the South Australian capital of Adelaide. It is the largest event of its kind in the world, attracting crowds of over 400,000 and televised to millions more...

, the world's largest Christmas parade
Santa Claus parade
Santa Claus parades or Christmas pageants are parades held in some countries to celebrate the official opening of the Christmas season with the arrival of Santa Claus....

. As the state capital, Adelaide is also home to a great number of cultural institutions with many located along the boulevard of North Terrace
North Terrace, Adelaide
North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central business and residential district of the city of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It runs east-west, along the northern edge of the CBD.-North Side of North Terrace:...

. The Art Gallery of South Australia
Art Gallery of South Australia
The Art Gallery of South Australia , located on the cultural boulevard of North Terrace in Adelaide, is the premier visual arts museum in the Australian state of South Australia. It has a collection of over 35,000 works of art, making it, after the National Gallery of Victoria, the largest state...

, with around 35,000 works, holds Australia's second largest state-based collection.

Situated adjacent are the South Australian Museum
South Australian Museum
The South Australian Museum is a museum in Adelaide, South Australia, founded in 1856. It occupies a complex of buildings on North Terrace in the cultural precinct of the Adelaide Parklands.-History:...

 and State Library of South Australia
State Library of South Australia
The State Library of South Australia, located on North Terrace, Adelaide, is the official library of the Australian state of South Australia. It is the largest public research library in the state with a collection focus on South Australian information, and general reference material for...

, while the Adelaide Botanic Garden
Adelaide Botanic Garden
The Adelaide Botanic Garden is a public garden at the north-east corner of the Adelaide city centre, in the Adelaide Park Lands. It encompasses a fenced garden on North Terrace and behind it the Botanic Park...

, National Wine Centre and Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute
Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute
The Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute, usually referred to simply as Tandanya, is an art museum located on Grenfell Street in Adelaide, South Australia...

 are located nearby in the East End
East End, Adelaide
The East End is a small part of the Adelaide central business district, close to East Terrace and North Terrace. This area is a popular office and retail district and has an increasing residential interest from the building of high-density luxury apartments in the area.The retail centre of the East...

 of the city. In the back of the State Library lies the Migration Museum
Migration Museum, Adelaide
The Migration Museum works towards the preservation, understanding and enjoyment of South Australia’s diverse cultures. It is a place to discover the many identities of the people of South Australia through the stories of individuals and communities...

 is Australia's oldest museum of its kind. Adelaide Festival Centre
Adelaide Festival Centre
The Adelaide Festival Centre, Australia's first multi-purpose arts centre, was built in 1973 and opened three months before the Sydney Opera House. The Festival Centre is located approximately 50 metres north of the corner of North Terrace and King William Street, lying near the banks of the River...

, on the banks of the Torrens, is the focal point for much of the cultural activity in the city and home to the State Theatre Company of South Australia
State Theatre Company of South Australia
The State Theatre Company of South Australia is South Australia's leading professional theatre company. It is based in the Dunstan Playhouse at the Adelaide Festival Centre. The current artistic director is Adam Cook...

, with other venues including the Adelaide Entertainment Centre
Adelaide Entertainment Centre
The Adelaide Entertainment Centre is an indoor arena located in the South Australian capital of Adelaide, and is used for sporting and entertainment events. It is the principal venue for concerts, events and attractions for audiences between 2,000 and 12,000. It is located on Port Road in the...

 and the city's many smaller theatres, pubs and cabaret bars.

The music of Adelaide
Music of Adelaide
Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia. Its musical heritage includes the well-known Adelaide Festival of Arts, Barossa Music Festival and the world music festival WOMADelaide, which is held annually in Botanic Park. Major music venues include the Royal Adelaide Showgrounds, Adelaide...

 has produced various musical groups and individuals who have achieved both national and international fame. This includes the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra
Adelaide Symphony Orchestra
The Adelaide Symphony Orchestra was founded as a 17 player radio ensemble in 1936, in Adelaide, South Australia. The orchestra reformed in 1949 as the 55 member South Australian Symphony Orchestra. It reverted to its original and present title, the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, in late 1974, and...

, the Adelaide Youth Orchestra
Adelaide Youth Orchestra
The Adelaide Youth Orchestra is an 80 member symphony orchestra designed to showcase the best young instrumentalists in Adelaide, South Australia.The youth orchestra itself comprises members aged between 14 and 25 years...

, rock bands: The Angels
The Angels (Australian band)
The Angels are a hard rock band that formed in Adelaide, Australia in 1970. The band later relocated from Adelaide to Sydney and enjoyed huge local success until well into the 1990s. For the purposes of international release, their records were released under the names Angel City and later The...

, Cold Chisel
Cold Chisel
Cold Chisel is a rock band that originated in Adelaide, Australia. It is one of the most acclaimed Australian rock bands of all time, with a string of hits throughout the 1970s and 1980s and huge sales that continue to this day, although its success and acclaim was almost completely restricted to...

, The Superjesus
The Superjesus
The Superjesus were an ARIA award–winning rock band from Adelaide, Australia. They are best known for their singles "Shut My Eyes", "Down Again" and "Gravity".-History:...

, Wolf & Cub
Wolf & Cub
Wolf & Cub are a band from Adelaide, Australia. Three of the original members hail from Port Augusta, South Australia. Their music is predominantly psychedelic with elements of Rock. The four-piece were signed to record label 4AD. An aspect of the bands music that makes them unique is their use of...

, Fire! Santa Rosa, Fire!
Fire! Santa Rosa, Fire!
Fire! Santa Rosa, Fire! are an indie rock group from Adelaide, South Australia. They describe their musical style as "monolithic tech-pop". They have released the independent EPs You Seize the City, I'll Seize the Sky and Boy, Hush Yr Mouth, Grrl Bare Yr Teeth , and full length studio album Sea...

, roots/blues group The Audreys
The Audreys
The Audreys are an ARIA Award-winning Australian five-piece blues/roots band who formed in Adelaide, South Australia in 2004.-Biography:The pre-cursor to The Audreys started in Melbourne as a duo consisting of lead singer Taasha Coates and guitarist Tristan Goodall...

, internationally acclaimed metal acts I Killed The Prom Queen
I Killed the Prom Queen
I Killed the Prom Queen is an Australian metalcore band which formed in 2000 with mainstays JJ Peters on drums and Jona Weinhofen on guitar. The band featured prominently on the Australian live music scene and toured the USA, Japan and parts of Europe several times...

 and Double Dragon
Double Dragon (band)
Double Dragon are a heavy metal band, from Adelaide, Australia. Their name is a homage to the 1980s cult video game Double Dragon. Double Dragon's musical style is heavy metal, but has also been described as melodic death metal or metalcore, featuring twin guitar harmonies, prominent lead guitar...

, popular Australian hip-hop outfit Hilltop Hoods
Hilltop Hoods
The Hilltop Hoods are an ARIA Award winning Australian hip hop group, from Adelaide, South Australia. Their members are MCs Suffa , MC Pressure , DJ Debris and formerly DJ Next. They have been at the centre of the Australian hip hop scene for the better part of two decades, originally forming back...

, pop acts like Sia
Sia Furler
Sia Kate Isobelle Furler or simply Sia, is an Australian pop, downtempo, and jazz singer and songwriter. In 2000, her single, "Taken for Granted" was a top 10 hit in the United Kingdom. Her 2008 album, Some People Have Real Problems peaked in the top 30 on the Billboard 200...

, Orianthi
Orianthi
Orianthi Panagaris , better known simply as Orianthi, is an Australian musician, singer-songwriter and guitarist. She is perhaps best known for being Michael Jackson's lead guitarist for his ill-fated This Is It concert series. Her debut single "According to You" has peaked at No. 3 in Japan, No. 8...

, Guy Sebastian
Guy Sebastian
Guy Theodore Sebastian is an Australian pop, R&B, and soul singer-songwriter who was the first winner of Australian Idol in 2003. He is currently a judge on the Australian version of The X Factor. Sebastian has released six top ten platinum/multi platinum albums, including a number-one and...

, and Wes Carr
Wes Carr
Wes Carr is an Australian singer-songwriter. He released his first studio album Simple Sum independently in 2008 shortly before entering Australian Idol. In November 2008 he was announced as the winner of the sixth season of Australian Idol...

, as well as internationally successful tribute act The Australian Pink Floyd Show
Australian Pink Floyd Show
The Australian Pink Floyd Show, more frequently referred to as the Australian Pink Floyd, are a Pink Floyd tribute band formed in 1988 in Adelaide, South Australia. Their live shows attempt to recreate the look, feel, and sound of Pink Floyd's later world tours, employing visual aids such as...

.

Noted rocker Jimmy Barnes
Jimmy Barnes
James Dixon Swan , better known as Jimmy Barnes, is a Scottish-born Australian rock singer-songwriter. His father Jim Swan was a prizefighter and his older brother John Swan is also a rock singer. It was actually John who had encouraged and taught Jim how to sing as he wasn't really interested at...

 spent most of his youth in the northern suburb of Elizabeth
Elizabeth, South Australia
Elizabeth is a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Playford.-History:Elizabeth was established in 1955 as part of a planned satellite town by the South Australian Housing Trust on rural land between the older towns of Salisbury and...

. Paul Kelly grew up in Adelaide and was head prefect at Rostrevor College. The first Australian Idol
Australian Idol
Australian Idol is a Logie Award-winning Australian singing competition, which began its first season on July 2003 and ended its run in November 2009. As part of the Idol franchise, Australian Idol originated from the reality program Pop Idol, which was created by British entertainment executive...

winner, Guy Sebastian
Guy Sebastian
Guy Theodore Sebastian is an Australian pop, R&B, and soul singer-songwriter who was the first winner of Australian Idol in 2003. He is currently a judge on the Australian version of The X Factor. Sebastian has released six top ten platinum/multi platinum albums, including a number-one and...

, hails from the north-eastern suburb of Golden Grove
Golden Grove, South Australia
Golden Grove is an outer north-eastern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia and is within the City of Tea Tree Gully local government area. It is adjacent to Wynn Vale, Surrey Downs, Greenwith, Yatala Vale, Fairview Park, and Salisbury East.- History :...

. American musician Ben Folds
Ben Folds
Benjamin Scott "Ben" Folds is an American singer-songwriter, record producer, and television personality. From 1995-2000, Folds was the frontman and pianist of the alternative rock band Ben Folds Five. Since the group disbanded, Folds has performed as a solo artist and has toured all over the world...

 used to base himself in Adelaide when he was married to Australian Frally Hynes. Folds recorded a song about Adelaide before he moved away from the city. In addition to its own WOMADelaide, Adelaide attracts several touring music festivals, including Big Day Out
Big Day Out
The Big Day Out is an annual music festival held in several cities in Australia and New Zealand in late January. It started in Sydney in 1992, spread to Adelaide, Melbourne and Perth by 1993, with the Gold Coast and Auckland joining in 1994...

, Parklife and Laneway
St Jerome's Laneway Festival
Known simply as the Laneway or St. Jerome's Festival, the music festival began in Caledonian Lane in Melbourne in 2004. Emerging as an indie music event, the Laneway Festival has grown rapidly in popularity, receiving favourable reviews in music press....

.

Concert venues

Adelaide pop-concert venues (past and present) include: Adelaide Entertainment Centre
Adelaide Entertainment Centre
The Adelaide Entertainment Centre is an indoor arena located in the South Australian capital of Adelaide, and is used for sporting and entertainment events. It is the principal venue for concerts, events and attractions for audiences between 2,000 and 12,000. It is located on Port Road in the...

; Adelaide Festival Theatre; Adelaide Oval
Adelaide Oval
The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the Central Business District and North Adelaide...

; Apollo Stadium
Apollo Stadium
Apollo Stadium was an indoor arena located at 41 Kingston Avenue, Richmond in the Adelaide Metropolitan Area, South Australia...

; Memorial Drive Park
Memorial Drive Park
Memorial Drive Park, more generally referred to as "Memorial Drive", is a tennis venue, located adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, in the park lands surrounding the centre of Adelaide, South Australia...

; Thebarton Theatre
Thebarton Theatre
The Thebarton Theatre , is an entertainment venue located in the inner-western Adelaide suburb of Torrensville, South Australia. Constructed in 1926, it is one of the most popular medium size venues in Australia. With a capacity of 2000, it is often used by newly formed bands and established...

. Other concert and live theatre venues include: Adelaide Town Hall
Adelaide Town Hall
Adelaide Town Hall is a landmark building on King William Street in Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.-Description and history:Adelaide Town Hall was designed by Edmund Wright and Edward Woods, with construction commencing in 1863 and completed in 1866...

; Dunstan Playhouse; Her Majesty's Theatre.

Media

Newspapers

Newspapers in Adelaide are dominated by News Corporation
News Corporation
News Corporation or News Corp. is an American multinational media conglomerate. It is the world's second-largest media conglomerate as of 2011 in terms of revenue, and the world's third largest in entertainment as of 2009, although the BBC remains the world's largest broadcaster...

 publications—Adelaide being the birthplace of News Corporation itself. The only South Australian daily newspaper is The Advertiser, published by News Corporation six days a week, while the Sunday paper is the Sunday Mail
Sunday Mail (Adelaide)
The Sunday mail was founded in 1912 by Clarence Moody. Moody initially set up three newspapers - the Sporting mail, Saturday mail and the Mail. The first two titles lasted only two years and five years respectively...

.

There are eleven suburban community newspapers published weekly, known collectively as the Messenger Newspapers
Messenger Newspapers
Messenger Newspapers is the publisher of 11 free suburban weekly newspapers together covering the Adelaide metropolitan area. Established by Roger Baynes in Port Adelaide in 1951, Messenger has since acquired other independent suburban titles to become Adelaide's only suburban newspaper group...

, also published by a subsidiary of News Corporation. The Independent Weekly
The Independent Weekly
The Independent Weekly, established in September 2004, is an independent newspaper published and circulated in Adelaide, capital of South Australia...

was a small independent newspaper providing one alternative view, but abolished its print edition in November 2010 and now exists as a digital daily newsletter only. Two national daily newspapers are circulated in the city: The Australian
The Australian
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964. The editor in chief is Chris Mitchell, the editor is Clive Mathieson and the 'editor-at-large' is Paul Kelly....

and its weekend publication, The Weekend Australian, also published by News Corporation; and The Australian Financial Review
The Australian Financial Review
The Australian Financial Review is a leading business and finance newspaper in Australia.Fairfax Media publishes it in a compact format six days a week, Monday to Saturday....

published by Fairfax. Interstate dailies, The Age
The Age
The Age is a daily broadsheet newspaper, which has been published in Melbourne, Australia since 1854. Owned and published by Fairfax Media, The Age primarily serves Victoria, but is also available for purchase in Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and border regions of South Australia and...

and The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily broadsheet newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia. The newspaper is published six days a week. The newspaper's Sunday counterpart, The...

, published by Fairfax, are also typically available. The Adelaide Review is a free paper published fortnightly, and other independent magazine-style papers are published, but are not as widely available.

Television

All of the five Australian national television networks broadcast both analogue
Analog television
Analog television is the analog transmission that involves the broadcasting of encoded analog audio and analog video signal: one in which the message conveyed by the broadcast signal is a function of deliberate variations in the amplitude and/or frequency of the signal...

 PAL
PAL
PAL, short for Phase Alternating Line, is an analogue television colour encoding system used in broadcast television systems in many countries. Other common analogue television systems are NTSC and SECAM. This page primarily discusses the PAL colour encoding system...

 and high definition digital
High-definition television
High-definition television is video that has resolution substantially higher than that of traditional television systems . HDTV has one or two million pixels per frame, roughly five times that of SD...

 services in Adelaide. They share three transmission towers on the ridge near the summit of Mount Lofty. The two government-funded stations are run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

 (ABC1) and the Special Broadcasting Service
Special Broadcasting Service
The Special Broadcasting Service is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television network. The stated purpose of SBS is "to provide multilingual and multicultural radio and television services that inform, educate and entertain all Australians and, in doing so, reflect...

 (SBS One). The Seven Network
Seven Network
The Seven Network is an Australian television network owned by Seven West Media Limited. It dates back to 4 November 1956, when the first stations on the VHF7 frequency were established in Melbourne and Sydney.It is currently the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach...

 and Network Ten
Network Ten
Network Ten , is one of Australia's three major commercial television networks. Owned-and-operated stations can be found in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to cover most of the country...

 both own their Adelaide stations (SAS-7
SAS-7
SAS is a television station in Adelaide, South Australia. It is part of the Australian Seven Network.SAS-7 was originally known as SAS-10, commencing broadcasting on 26 July 1965. On 27 December 1987, SAS-10 and ADS-7 switched broadcast channels, ADS moving to channel 10, SAS moving to channel 7...

 and ADS-10
ADS-10
ADS Adelaide is an Australian television station, owned by, and affiliated with the Ten Network.-History:ADS-10 began as ADS-7 on 24 October 1959, before being owned by those affiliated with the Ten Network. On 27 December 1987, ADS-7 and SAS-10 switched affiliations, ADS moving to channel 10, SAS...

 respectively).

Adelaide's NWS-9
NWS-9
NWS is an Australian television station owned by the WIN Corporation which is based in Adelaide, Australia. The station's name, NWS is an acronym of The NeWs South Australia.-Origins:...

 is affiliated with the Nine Network
Nine Network
The Nine Network , is an Australian television network with headquarters based in Willoughby, a suburb located on the North Shore of Sydney. For 50 years since television's inception in Australia, between 1956 and 2006, it was the most watched television network in Australia...

 and was owned by Southern Cross Broadcasting
Southern Cross Broadcasting
Southern Cross Broadcasting Limited was a diversified Australian media company, that owned and operated a variety of media businesses, primarily radio and television.-History:...

 until the sale to WIN Corporation
WIN Corporation
The WIN Corporation is a Wollongong based media company, that owns the WIN Television network, NWS, and STW in Australia.It began broadcasting in Wollongong with one station in 1963. Bruce Gordon acquired control of the company in 1979 and initiated a period of growth which has seen the Network...

 in May 2007. New digital-only channels available in addition to ABC1, Seven, Nine, Ten and SBS One include One HD, Eleven
Eleven (TV channel)
Eleven is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel, which was launched by ElevenCo, on 11 January 2011.-Joint venture:...

, ABC2
ABC2
ABC2 is a national public television channel in Australia. Launched on 7 March 2005, it is the responsibility of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's television division, and is available nationally to digital television viewers in Australia...

, ABC3
ABC3
-Future shows:Programming confirmed for future broadcast will include:* After School Care * Bindi's Boot Camp * Bushwacked! * Dance Academy * Dancing Down Under...

, ABC News 24
ABC News 24
ABC News 24 is an Australian 24-hour news channel launched and owned by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The channel replaced the former ABC High Definition simulcast of ABC1 and commenced broadcasting at 7:30pm 5:30 on Thursday, 22 July 2010.-Pre-launch:The ABC announced in January 2010...

, SBS Two, 7Two
7Two
7TWO is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel which was launched by the Seven Network on Sunday 1 November 2009 at 12pm....

, 7mate
7mate
7mate is an Australian free-to-air high definition digital television channel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 25 September 2010.The network stated that 7mate would contain sport and regular programs aimed primarily at a male audience, with programming drawn from a combination of new...

, GEM HD and GO!
Go! (Australian TV channel)
GO! is an Australian free-to-air standard definition digital television channel launched by the Nine Network on Sunday 9 August 2009.-Origins:...

. Adelaide also has a community television station, C31 Adelaide
C31 Adelaide
44 Adelaide is a community television station broadcasting in Adelaide, South Australia on the Channel 31 frequency since 23 April 2004. It was previously known as C31 before it started transmitting in Digital....

. The Foxtel
Foxtel
Foxtel is an Australian pay television company, operating cable, direct broadcast satellite television and IPTV services. It was formed in 1995 through a joint venture established between Telstra and News Corporation....

 pay TV
Pay TV
Pay television, premium television, or premium channels refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analog and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly via digital terrestrial and internet television...

 service is available as cable television in a few areas, and as satellite television to the entire metropolitan area. It is resold by a number of other brands, mostly telephone companies.

As part of a nation-wide phase-out of analogue television in Australia, Adelaide's analogue TV service is slated to be shut down in the second half of 2013.

Radio

There are twenty radio stations that serve the metropolitan area, as well as four community stations that serve only parts of the metropolitan area. Of the twenty full coverage stations, there are six commercial stations, six community stations, six national stations and two narrowcast stations. A complete list can be found at List of radio stations in Australia#Adelaide.

Commercial stations include:
  • AM Band: Cruise 1323
    Cruise 1323
    Cruise 1323 is one of Adelaide's longest running radio stations. In its 80+ years it has changed considerably. It was the first commercial station to begin broadcasting in South Australia.- History :...

    ; FIVEaa 1395
    FIVEaa
    5AA , is 50% owned by dmg Radio Australia and Lachlan Murdoch's company Illyra, and Adelaide's only commercial talkback radio station. The station has a range of programs including news, sport, current affairs, social issues, gardening, lifestyle, cars, travel and health...

  • FM Band: Nova 91.9
    Nova 91.9
    Nova 91.9 is a commercial radio station operating in Adelaide, Australia, owned by the DMG Radio Network.Along with its sister stations Nova 100 Melbourne, Nova 96.9 Sydney, Nova 106.9 Brisbane and Nova 93.7 Perth, Nova now claims to be Australia's leading under 40's brand.-Breakfast:The breakfast...

    ; Fresh FM 92.7; Mix 102.3
    MIX 102.3
    Mix 102.3 is a commercial radio station in Adelaide, Australia, owned by The Australian Radio Network .Mix 102.3 plays current hits and a variety of 70s, 80s and 90s music , primarily targeted at the 25-54 age group, the group most valued by advertisers...

    ; Triple M 104.7
    Triple M
    The Triple M Network is an active rock radio network in Australia owned by media company Austereo, who also own the Today Network.- History :...

    ; SAFM 107.1
    SAFM
    SAFM is a commercial FM radio station in Adelaide, Australia, primarily targeted at those in the 16-35 age group on a frequency of 107.1 MHz, and part of Austereo's Today Network.-Station History:...



Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation, commonly referred to as "the ABC" , is Australia's national public broadcaster...

 stations include:
  • AM Band: Radio National 729
    Radio National
    ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide non-commercial radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.Radio National broadcasts national programming in areas that include news and current affairs, the arts, social issues, science, drama and comedy...

    ; 891 Adelaide (Local Radio)
    891 ABC Adelaide
    891 ABC Adelaide is the ABC Local Radio station for Adelaide. It is broadcast at 891 kHz on the AM band.-History:...

    ; NewsRadio 972
    ABC NewsRadio
    ABC NewsRadio is an Australian Broadcasting Corporation radio service devoted to delivering live and 24-hour news updates and information. The service is available on a number of broadcasts right around Australia, including AM/FM radio, some pay-TV platforms and online via the Internet.Originally...

  • FM Band: Classic FM 103.9
    ABC Classic FM
    ABC Classic FM is a classical music radio station available in Australia, and internationally online. It is operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation . It was established in 1976 as "ABC-FM", and later for a short time was known as "ABC Fine Music" , before adopting its current name...

    ; and Triple J 105.5
    Triple J
    triple j is a nationally networked Australian radio station intended to appeal to listeners between the ages of 18 and 30. The government-funded station is a division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation...

    .

Sport

The main sports played professionally in Adelaide are Australian rules football
Australian rules football
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, Aussie rules or footy is a sport played between two teams of 22 players on either...

, soccer, cricket
Cricket
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

, netball
Netball
Netball is a ball sport played between two teams of seven players. Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s. By 1960 international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball ...

 and basketball. Adelaide is the home of two Australian Football League
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is both the governing body and the major professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football...

 teams: the Adelaide Crows
Adelaide Crows
The Adelaide Football Club, nicknamed The Crows, is a professional Australian rules football club based in Adelaide, South Australia, playing in the Australian Football League ....

 and Port Adelaide Power. A local football
Australian rules football
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, Aussie rules or footy is a sport played between two teams of 22 players on either...

 league, the SANFL
South Australian National Football League
The South Australian National Football League is an Australian rules football league based in the Australian state of South Australia. It is also the governing body for the sport of Australian rules football in South Australia....

, is made up of nine teams from around Adelaide.

Adelaide has developed a strong culture of attracting crowds to major sporting events. Most large sporting events take place at either AAMI Stadium
AAMI Stadium
Football Park is an Australian rules football stadium located in West Lakes, a western suburb of Adelaide, South Australia...

 or the historic Adelaide Oval
Adelaide Oval
The Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the Central Business District and North Adelaide...

, home of the Southern Redbacks
Southern Redbacks
The South Australia cricket team, nicknamed the Southern Redbacks and known as the West End Redbacks due to their sponsorship agreement with local brewers West End, are an Australian first class cricket team based in Adelaide, South Australia, and represent the state of South Australia...

 cricket team. Adelaide hosts an international cricket test every summer, along with a number of One Day International cricket matches. Memorial Drive Park
Memorial Drive Park
Memorial Drive Park, more generally referred to as "Memorial Drive", is a tennis venue, located adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, in the park lands surrounding the centre of Adelaide, South Australia...

, adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, used to host the Adelaide International, a major men's tennis tournament in the lead-up to the Australian Open before the tournament was moved to Brisbane
Brisbane
Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

 in 2009. Adelaide's professional football (soccer)
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 team, Adelaide United, play in the A-League
A-League
The A-League is the top Australasian professional football league. Run by Australian governing body Football Federation Australia , it was founded in 2004 following the folding of the National Soccer League and staged its inaugural season in 2005–06. It is sponsored by Hyundai Motor Company...

. Founded in 2003, their home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium
Hindmarsh Stadium
Hindmarsh Stadium is a rectangular stadium located in Adelaide, South Australia. It is the home of the Australian A-League team, Adelaide United....

, which has a capacity of 17,000 and is one of the few purpose-built soccer stadia in Australia. In 2008 the Cronulla Sharks
Cronulla Sharks
The Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks are Australian professional Rugby league team based in Cronulla, in the Sutherland Shire, Southern Sydney, New South Wales...

, an Australian NRL franchise, and the South Australian Government announced a three year contract in which the Sharks will play a single home game each season at Hindmarsh. Unfortunately this only happened for 2009. From 2010 the Canterbury Bulldogs signed an agreement to play one home game per season at the Adelaide Oval for three years with the hope of establishing a strong supporter base in Adelaide.

Adelaide has two professional basketball teams, the mens team being the Adelaide 36ers
Adelaide 36ers
The Adelaide 36ers are Adelaide's men's professional basketball team, established as the Adelaide City Eagles when they joined the National Basketball League in 1982. The Adelaide 36ers tally of four championships is equal with the Melbourne Tigers and second behind the Perth Wildcats as the most...

 who play in the NBL and the women's team, the Adelaide Lightning who play in the WNBL
Women's National Basketball League
The Women's National Basketball League is the pre-eminent women's professional basketball league in Australia. It currently is composed of ten teams. The league was founded in 1981 and is the women's counterpart to the National Basketball League...

. The 36ers play their home games at the Adelaide Arena while the Lightning mostly play at the Wayville Sports Centre and occasionally at The Dome. Adelaide has a professional netball
Netball
Netball is a ball sport played between two teams of seven players. Its development, derived from early versions of basketball, began in England in the 1890s. By 1960 international playing rules had been standardised for the game, and the International Federation of Netball and Women's Basketball ...

 team, the Adelaide Thunderbirds
Adelaide Thunderbirds
The Adelaide Thunderbirds are an Australian netball team based in Adelaide that currently compete in the trans-Tasman ANZ Championship. The Thunderbirds were formed as one of the foundation teams of the Commonwealth Bank Trophy , previously the premier netball league in Australia, which was...

 play in the trans-Tasman netball competition, the ANZ Championship
ANZ Championship
The ANZ Championship is the pre-eminent netball league in the world. The competition is held annually between April and July, comprising 69 matches played over 17 weeks. It is contested by ten teams, five from Australia and five from New Zealand...

, with home games played at ETSA Park
ETSA Park
ETSA Park is a sporting venue located in Adelaide, South Australia, opposite Santos Stadium, Adelaide's premier athletics stadium. It is a specialist netball facility, hosting matches in both the national ANZ Championship and state Dairy Farmers Cup, as well as some international matches. However,...

. The Thunderbirds also occasionally play games or finals at The Dome or the Adelaide Entertainment Centre. Adelaide hosts the Tour Down Under
Tour Down Under
The Tour Down Under is a cycling race in Adelaide, South Australia and surrounding area. The race starts on the third Tuesday of January each year and attracts riders from across Australia and the world. In 2005, the Tour Down Under was promoted by the Union Cycliste Internationale to the...

 bicycle race, the largest cycling event outside Europe and the first event outside Europe with UCI ProTour
UCI ProTour
The UCI ProTour was a series of road bicycle races in Europe, Australia and Canada organised by the UCI . Created by Hein Verbruggen, former president of the UCI, it comprises a number of 'ProTour' cycling teams, each of whom are required to compete in every round of the series...

 status.

The Australian Grand Prix
Australian Grand Prix
The Australian Grand Prix is a motor race held annually and is held to be the pinnacle of motor racing in Australia. The Grand Prix is the oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia having been held 76 times since it was first run at Phillip Island in 1928. Since 1985 the race has...

 for Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 racing was hosted by Adelaide from 1985 to 1995 on a street circuit
Adelaide Street Circuit
The Adelaide Street Circuit is a temporary street circuit in the East Parklands adjacent to the central business district of the city of Adelaide in South Australia....

 in the city's eastern parklands. The Grand Prix became a source of pride and losing the event to Melbourne in a surprise announcement left a void that has since been filled with the highly successful Clipsal 500
Adelaide 500
The Adelaide 500 is an annual motor racing event for V8 Supercars, held on the streets of the east end of Adelaide, South Australia on a shortened form of the Adelaide Street Circuit, the former Australian Grand Prix track...

 for V8 Supercar
V8 Supercar
V8 Supercars is a touring car racing category based in Australia and run as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile regulations...

 racing, held on a modified version of the same street circuit. The Classic Adelaide, a rally
Rallying
Rallying, also known as rally racing, is a form of auto racing that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars...

 of classic sporting vehicles, is also held in the city and its surrounds.

The World Solar Challenge
World Solar Challenge
The World Solar Challenge is a solar-powered car race which covers through the Australian Outback, from Darwin to Adelaide.The race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools...

 race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools. The race has a 20-year history spanning nine races, with the inaugural event taking place in 1987. Adelaide will host the 2012 World Bowls Championships at Lockleys Bowling Club. Adelaide will become the third city in the world to have held the championships twice, having previously hosted the event in 1996.

Health

Adelaide's first hospital is the Royal Adelaide Hospital
Royal Adelaide Hospital
The Royal Adelaide Hospital is Adelaide's largest hospital, with 680 beds. Founded in 1840, the Royal Adelaide provides tertiary health care services for South Australia and provides secondary care clinical services to residents of Adelaide's city centre and inner suburbs.The hospital is situated...

 (RAH). Founded in 1840, it is one of the major hospitals in Adelaide and is a teaching hospital
Teaching hospital
A teaching hospital is a hospital that provides clinical education and training to future and current doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, in addition to delivering medical care to patients...

 of the University of Adelaide. It has a capacity of 705 beds. Two other RAH campuses which specialise in specific patient services are located in the suburbs of Adelaide – the Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre in Northfield
Northfield, South Australia
Northfield is a suburb of the greater Adelaide, South Australia area. The earliest known record of the name being used in reference to the area, is from the 1890s in conjunction with the North Field Athletics Club...

, and the Glenside
Glenside, South Australia
Glenside is a suburb in the City of Burnside, Adelaide, South Australia, around 2 kilometres south-east of the Central business district, home to 2,985 people in a total land area of 1.40 km²....

 Campus Mental Health Service. Four other large hospitals in the Adelaide area are: the Women's and Children's Hospital
Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide
The Women's and Children's Hospital is located on King William Road in North Adelaide, Australia.It is one of the major hospitals in Adelaide and is a teaching hospital of the University of Adelaide, the University of South Australia and Flinders University....

 (305 beds), which is located on King William Road in North Adelaide; the Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital is a 340 bed acute tertiary referral hospital in the western suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia.-History:...

 (340 beds), located in Woodville, the Flinders Medical Centre
Flinders Medical Centre
Flinders Medical Centre is a 580 bed public teaching hospital and medical school, co-located with Flinders University and the 130 bed Flinders Private Hospital located at Bedford Park, South Australia. It opened in 1976. It is one of the major public hospitals operating in metropolitan Adelaide...

 (580 beds), located in Bedford Park and in the northern suburbs, and the Lyell McEwin Hospital (198 beds) in Elizabeth. These hospitals are also associated with medical schools. The Women's and Children's, the Queen Elizabeth and the Lyell McEwin are affiliated with the University of Adelaide
University of Adelaide
The University of Adelaide is a public university located in Adelaide, South Australia. Established in 1874, it is the third oldest university in Australia...

, Flinders Medical Centre is affiliated Flinders University
Flinders University
Flinders University, , is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of navigator Matthew Flinders, who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century.The university has established a reputation as a leading research...

, and the Lyell McEwin is also affiliated with the University of South Australia
University of South Australia
The University of South Australia is a public university in the Australian state of South Australia. It was formed in 1991 with the merger of the South Australian Institute of Technology and Colleges of Advanced Education. It is the largest university in South Australia, with more than 36,000...

.

In June 2007 the State Government announced a series of overhauls to the health sector that would see a new hospital constructed on railyards at the west end of the city, to replace the Royal Adelaide Hospital located at the east end of the city. Should it go ahead, the new 800 bed hospital would cost A$1.7 bn and be named the "Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Hospital" after the former Governor of South Australia
Marjorie Jackson
Marjorie Jackson-Nelson, AC, CVO, MBE is a former Governor of South Australia and a former Australian athlete...

. However, in 2009, at the former governor's request, the state government chose to drop this name and instead transfer the Royal Adelaide Hospital name to the proposed facility.

In addition, major upgrades would see the Flinders Medical Centre become the primary centre for health care for the southern suburbs, while upgrades for the Lyell McEwin Hospital in Elizabeth would see that become the centre for the northern suburbs. The trio of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the Modbury Hospital
Modbury Hospital
Modbury Hospital is a 174-bed, acute care teaching hospital that provides inpatient, outpatient and emergency services to a population of nearly 200,000 people living primarily in Adelaide’s north-eastern suburbs....

 and the Noarlunga Hospital would become specialist elective surgery centres. The Repatriation General Hospital would also expand its range of speciality areas beyond veterans' health to incorporate stroke, orthopaedic rehabilitation and aged care. With the "Global Financial Crisis" of 2008, it remains to be seen if and how these initiatives will proceed.

Transport

Being centrally located on the Australian mainland, Adelaide forms a strategic transport hub for east-west and north-south routes. The city itself has a metropolitan-wide public transport system, which is managed by and known as the Adelaide Metro
Adelaide Metro
Adelaide Metro is the public transport system of the South Australian capital of Adelaide and the brand name of the Public Transport Division of the Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure. It is an intermodal system with services provided by bus, tram or commuter rail throughout the...

. The Adelaide Metro consists of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway
O-Bahn Busway
The Adelaide O-Bahn Busway is a guided busway located in Adelaide, South Australia. The O-Bahn – from the Latin omnibus and the German bahn – was conceived by Daimler-Benz to enable buses to avoid traffic congestion by sharing tram tunnels in the German city of Essen.The route was introduced in...

, metropolitan railways
Railways in Adelaide
The rail network in Adelaide, South Australia, consists of five lines and 81 stations, totalling 125.9 km. It is operated by Adelaide Metro, and is part of the city-wide Adelaide Metro]public transport system. Apart from the Glenelg Tram, Adelaide's railway system is serviced entirely by...

, and the Adelaide-Glenelg Tram
Glenelg Tram
The Glenelg Tram is a route from the centre of Adelaide, South Australia to the beach-side suburb of Glenelg. It is Adelaide's only remaining tramway, running at approximately 15-minute intervals, and is part of the integrated Adelaide Metro public transport network...

, which was extended as a metropolitan tram in 2010 through the city centre to the inner north-west suburb of Hindmarsh
Hindmarsh, South Australia
Hindmarsh is an inner urban suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in the City of Charles Sturt.-History:The suburb is named after South Australia's first Governor, Sir John Hindmarsh....

.

Road transport in Adelaide has historically been comparatively easier than many of the other Australian cities, with a well-defined city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the beginning of its development. Historically, Adelaide was known as a "twenty-minute city", with commuters having been able to travel from metropolitan outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty minutes. However, these roads are now often considered inadequate to cope with Adelaide's growing road traffic, and often experience traffic congestion.

Adelaide has one freeway and two expressways; the South Eastern Freeway
South Eastern Freeway
The South Eastern Freeway is a 66 kilometre four-lane divided carriageway road in South Australia linking the Adelaide-Crafers Highway to the Princes Highway at the Swanport Bridge, a one kilometre long bridge over the River Murray, near Murray Bridge...

, connecting the city with the Adelaide Hills and beyond to Murray Bridge, the Port River Expressway
Port River Expressway
The Port River Expressway is a freeway-grade road. The expressway links Port Adelaide and the LeFevre Peninsula to the northern suburbs of Adelaide and major interstate routes via Salisbury Highway to Port Wakefield Road and the Northern Expressway to Perth and Sydney.The expressway is only...

 connecting Port Adelaide and Outer Harbor
Outer Harbor, South Australia
Outer Harbor is a north-western industrial suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, located at the northern tip of the Lefevre Peninsula; administratively, it lies in the City of Port Adelaide Enfield, 22 km from the Adelaide city centre. It is adjacent to Osborne, North Haven and Pelican Point...

 to interstate routes, and the Southern Expressway
Southern Expressway
The Southern Expressway is the world's longest reversible one way freeway. Originally proposed as 'Noarlunga Freeway', it was built as a corridor to relieve heavy traffic from the major arterial, Main South Road, in Adelaide's south. The expressway was built in two stages — the first...

, an interchangeable one-way road
Reversible lane
A reversible lane , called a counterflow lane or contraflow lane in transport engineering nomenclature, is a lane in which traffic may travel in either direction, depending on certain conditions...

 connecting the southern suburbs with the city proper. The Gawler Bypass
Gawler bypass road
Gawler Bypass Road is a major north-south route in the outer northern suburbs of the city of Adelaide, South Australia. It has the National designation of north of the Northern Expressway, while south of this intersection it has the State designation of ....

 skirting Gawler is another expressway style, high speed inter-urban corridor. In February 2010, the current state government announced plans to upgrade the Southern Expressway to a dual direction expressway if it was re-elected at the next State election.

A third expressway, the Northern Expressway
Northern Expressway
The Northern Expressway is a 23 kilometre long controlled-access highway in Adelaide, South Australia. It travels from Gawler to Port Wakefield Road...

 (formerly the Sturt Highway
Sturt Highway
The Sturt Highway is an Australian highway in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. It is part of the Auslink National network and is part of the main highway route between Sydney and Adelaide.-Route:...

 extension), a northern suburbs bypass route—connecting the Gawler Bypass to Port Wakefield Road—started construction in 2008. There are also plans for major upgrades to busy sections of South Road
South Road, Adelaide
South Road is a major north–south conduit in Adelaide, South Australia. Also known as Main South Road, it is Adelaide's most important arterial road.- Route :...

, including road widening and underpasses of Anzac Highway (completed in 2009), Grange Road, Port Road and the Outer Harbour Railway Line, during the first stage.

Airports

The Adelaide metropolitan area has two commercial Airports, Adelaide and Parafield
Parafield Airport
Parafield Airport is on the edge of the residential suburb of Parafield, South Australia, 18 kilometres north of the Adelaide Central business district and adjacent to the Mawson Lakes campus of the University of South Australia. It is Adelaide's second airport and the fifth busiest airport in...

.

Adelaide Airport, located in Adelaide's western suburbs, is designed to serve in excess of 6.3 million passengers annually. The dual international/domestic terminal named T1 incorporates glass aerobridges and has the ability to cater for the Airbus A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

. The airport is designed to handle 27 aircraft simultaneously and is capable of processing 3,000 passengers per hour. Unusually for a major city, it is located only seven kilometres (4.4 mi) from the Adelaide city centre
Adelaide city centre
The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

. The airport is serviced by five international airlines in addition to domestic, regional and charter operators, including: Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, the airline operates scheduled passenger flights to 26 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations in 15 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, and is...

, Qantas
Qantas
Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia. The name was originally "QANTAS", an initialism for "Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services". Nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo", the airline is based in Sydney, with its main hub at Sydney Airport...

, Virgin Australia, Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport, although the airline's registered office is on the 33rd floor of One Pacific Place...

, Malaysia Airlines
Malaysia Airlines
Malaysian Airline System Berhad , DBA Malaysia Airlines , is the government-owned flag carrier of Malaysia. Malaysia Airlines operates flights from its home base, Kuala Lumpur International Airport, and its eastern hub in Kota Kinabalu. It has its headquarters on the grounds of Sultan Abdul Aziz...

, Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines
Singapore Airlines Limited is the flag carrier airline of Singapore. Singapore Airlines operates a hub at Changi Airport and has a strong presence in the Southeast Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and "Kangaroo Route" markets...

, Pacific Blue Airlines, QantasLink
QantasLink
QantasLink is a regional brand of Australian airline Qantas and is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance. It is a major competitor to Regional Express Airlines, Virgin Australia and Skywest Airlines. As of September 2010 QantasLink provides 1900 flights each week to 54 domestic and...

 and Tiger Airways Australia
Tiger Airways Australia
Tiger Airways Australia Pty Ltd, operating as Tiger Airways Australia, is a low cost airline which commenced services in the Australian domestic airline market on 23 November 2007. It is a subsidiary of Tiger Airways Holdings, a Singapore-based company, which is owned partially by Singapore Airlines...

. Adelaide airport currently has direct flights servicing Denpasar (Bali, Indonesia), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Nadi (Fiji), Hong Kong, Singapore and Auckland (New Zealand). In March 2007, Adelaide Airport was rated the world's second best airport in the 5–15 million passengers category at the Airports Council International
Airports Council International
Airports Council International is the association of the world’s airports. It is a non profit organization, whose prime purpose is to advance the interests of airports and to promote professional excellence in airport management and operations...

 (ACI) 2006 awards in Dubai.

Parafield Airport
Parafield Airport
Parafield Airport is on the edge of the residential suburb of Parafield, South Australia, 18 kilometres north of the Adelaide Central business district and adjacent to the Mawson Lakes campus of the University of South Australia. It is Adelaide's second airport and the fifth busiest airport in...

, Adelaide's second airport, located eighteen kilometres (11.2 mi) north of the CBD, is used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation purposes.

Utilities

Adelaide's energy requirements are met by a variety of companies who separately provide for the generation, transmission, distribution and retail sales of gas and electricity. Some of the major companies are: TRUenergy
TRUenergy
TRUenergy is an energy company headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Founded in 1995 as a retailer and generator of electricity, and a retailer of natural gas, the company is formed from the combination of retail and generation assets purchased by Hong Kong-based CLP from Singapore Power...

, which generates electricity; ElectraNet
Electranet
Electranet is a proposed smart electric grid which would allow people to sell electricity into the grid without any artificial caps. It was proposed in an op-ed article Al Gore wrote in a "My Turn" column for Newsweek in 2006....

, which transmits electricity from the generators to the distribution network; ETSA Utilities
ETSA Utilities
ETSA Utilities is the operator of the South Australian electricity distribution network, delivering electricity from the high voltage transmission network connection points through a network of about 85,000 kilometres of powerlines, to over 782,000 residential and business customers throughout most...

 (formerly a government-owned company which was privatised by the Olsen
John Olsen
John Wayne Olsen, AO was Premier of South Australia between 28 November 1996 and 22 October 2001.-Parliament:Olsen was a member of the Liberal Party and Member of Parliament for more than 20 years...

 Government in the 1990s), which distributes electricity from transmission companies to end users; and AGL Energy
AGL Energy
AGL Energy is the largest Australian gas and electricity retailer, with over six million customers. It has large investments in the supply of gas and electricity, and has recently invested in sustainable energy businesses such as wind farms and a hydroelectric power station in Victoria’s High...

, which retails gas and electricity. Substantial investment has been made in maintenance and reinforcement of the electricity supply network to provide continued reliability of supply.

Adelaide derives most of its electricity from a gas-fired plant operated by AGL Energy
AGL Energy
AGL Energy is the largest Australian gas and electricity retailer, with over six million customers. It has large investments in the supply of gas and electricity, and has recently invested in sustainable energy businesses such as wind farms and a hydroelectric power station in Victoria’s High...

 at Torrens Island
Torrens Island Power Station, South Australia
Torrens Island Power Station is located on Torrens Island, near Adelaide, South Australia and is operated by AGL Energy. It burns natural gas in 8 steam turbines to generate up to 1,280MW of electricity. The gas is supplied via the SEAGas pipeline from Victoria and from Moomba in the Cooper Basin....

, with more coming from power stations at Port Augusta
Port Augusta, South Australia
-Electricity generation:Electricity is generated at the Playford B and Northern power stations from brown coal mined at Leigh Creek, 250 km to the north...

 and Pelican Point, and from connections to the national grid. Gas is mainly supplied from the Moomba
Moomba, South Australia
Moomba is a Santos-owned gas exploration and processing town located in the Cooper and Eromanga Basins, in central Australia, approximately 770 kilometres north of Adelaide....

 Gas Processing Plant in the Cooper Basin
Cooper Basin
The Cooper Basin is a sedimentary geological basin in Australia. The basin is located mainly in the north-east part of South Australia and extends into south-west Queensland. It is named after the Cooper Creek which is an ephemeral river that runs into Lake Eyre. Part of the Cooper Basin is...

, and is piped to Adelaide and other areas within the state. A small part of supply also comes from wind turbines at Sellicks Hill
Sellicks Hill, South Australia
Sellicks Hill is a semi-rural suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It lies within the City of Onkaparinga.-History:Sellick's Hill Post Office opened on 2 July 1860.-References:...

, and a trial of more turbines on city buildings is underway.

Adelaide's water supply is gained from its reservoirs: Mount Bold
Mount Bold Reservoir
-2007 fire:A bushfire ravaged the Mount Bold Valley area, which includes the properties between Kangarilla and Echunga, during the second week of January 2007. The fire destroyed two houses, gutted over ten sheds and killed livestock and horses. Two people were injured and fencing was damaged. The...

, Happy Valley
Happy Valley Reservoir
Constructed when the total population of Adelaide numbered 315,200 the Happy Valley Reservoir now supplies over a half a million people, from Adelaide's southern extent to the city-centre.-Construction:...

, Myponga
Myponga Reservoir
The Myponga Reservoir is a reservoir in South Australia, located about 60 km south of Adelaide near the town of Myponga. The reservoir is fed by the Myponga River and other rivers in the Myponga catchment....

, Millbrook
Millbrook Reservoir
Millbrook Reservoir is a 16,000 Megalitre artificial water storage reservoir in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia. It was built during from 1914–1918 during World War I to control water flows in the upper River Torrens and provide gravity fed water to Adelaide's eastern suburbs.It is...

, Hope Valley
Hope Valley Reservoir
The Hope Valley Reservoir is a 2840 megalitre service reservoir in Hope Valley, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia.When completed in 1873 it was the second reservoir constructed in Adelaide; it is the oldest still in use in South Australia. It covers and is retained behind a ...

, Little Para
Little Para Reservoir
Little Para Reservoir is a reservoir in South Australia serving the city of Adelaide. It was built between 1974 and 1977, costing A$11.5 million, and commissioned in January 1979....

 and South Para
South Para Reservoir
South Para Reservoir is the second largest reservoir in South Australia, behind Mount Bold Reservoir, and the principal reservoir of the South Para River system...

. The yield from these reservoir catchments can be as little as 10% of the city's requirements in drought years and about 60% in average years. The remaining demand is met by the pumping of water from the River Murray. A sea water desalination plant capable of supplying half of Adelaide's water requirements (100GL per annum) is currently being planned, with construction expected to be completed by 2012. The provision of water services is by the government-owned SA Water
SA Water
SA Water was established by the proclamation of the South Australian Water Corporation Act 1994 on 1 July 1995. Its predecessor was known as Engineering and Water Supply Department . E&WS evolved from the Waterworks and Drainage Commission, which was established in 1856...

.

See also

  • Adelaide city centre
    Adelaide city centre
    The Adelaide city centre is the innermost locality of Greater Adelaide, known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town". The locality is split into two key geographical distinctions: the city "square mile", bordered by North, East, South and West Terraces; and that part of the Adelaide Parklands...

  • City of Adelaide
    City of Adelaide
    The City of Adelaide is a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. It covers the original Adelaide city centre settlement, , North Adelaide, and the Adelaide Park Lands which surround North Adelaide and the city centre.Established in 1840, the organisation now...

  • Music of Adelaide
    Music of Adelaide
    Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia. Its musical heritage includes the well-known Adelaide Festival of Arts, Barossa Music Festival and the world music festival WOMADelaide, which is held annually in Botanic Park. Major music venues include the Royal Adelaide Showgrounds, Adelaide...

  • South Australian wine
    South Australian wine
    The South Australian wine industry is responsible for more than half the production of all Australian wine. The state of South Australia has a vast diversity in geography and climate which allows the state to be able to successfully produce a wide range of grape varieties-from the cool climate...

  • Port Adelaide
    Port Adelaide
    Port Adelaide is a suburb of Adelaide lying about 14 kilometres northwest of the City of Adelaide. It lies within the City of Port Adelaide Enfield and is the main port for the city of Adelaide...



Lists:
Images of Adelaide (Commons)
Visitor attractions in South Australia

Further reading

  • Kathryn Gargett; Susan Marsden, Adelaide: A Brief History Adelaide: State History Centre, History Trust of South Australia in association with Adelaide City Council
    City of Adelaide
    The City of Adelaide is a local government area in the metropolitan area of Adelaide, South Australia. It covers the original Adelaide city centre settlement, , North Adelaide, and the Adelaide Park Lands which surround North Adelaide and the city centre.Established in 1840, the organisation now...

    , 1996 ISBN 978-0-7308-0116-0
  • Susan Marsden; Paul Stark; Patricia Sumerling, eds, Heritage of the City of Adelaide: an illustrated guide Adelaide: Adelaide City Council, 1990, 1996 ISBN 978-0-909866-30-3
  • Derek Whitelock et al., Adelaide: a sense of difference Melbourne: Arcadia, 2000 ISBN 978-0-87560-657-6

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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