Abwehrflammenwerfer 42
The Abwehrflammenwerfer 42 was a German
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 static defensive flamethrower
A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to project a long controllable stream of fire.Some flamethrowers project a stream of ignited flammable liquid; some project a long gas flame. Most military flamethrowers use liquids, but commercial flamethrowers tend to use high-pressure propane and...

, flame fougasse
Flame fougasse
A flame fougasse is a weapon. It is a type of mine which uses an explosive charge to project burning liquid onto a target. The flame fougasse was developed by the Petroleum Warfare Department in Britain as an anti-tank weapon during the invasion crisis of 1940...

 or flame mine used during the Second World War. The design was copied from Russian FOG-1 mines that were encountered in 1941 during Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941. Over 4.5 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a front., the largest invasion in the history of warfare...

. These were usually buried at intervals of 12 to 30 yd (11 to 27.4 m) covering road blocks, landing beaches, harbor
A harbor or harbour , or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial...

 walls and other obstacles. They were normally mixed in with other mines or emplaced behind barbed wire
Barbed wire
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire , is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand. It is used to construct inexpensive fences and is used atop walls surrounding secured property...

 and could be command detonated or triggered by tripwire
A tripwire is a passive triggering mechanism. Typically, a wire or cord is attached to some device for detecting or reacting to physical movement...

s or other devices.

The mine consisted of a large fuel cylinder 53 centimetres (20.9 in) high and 30 centimetres (11.8 in) with a capacity of 29.5 litres (62.3 US pt) containing a black viscid liquid, a mix of light, medium, and heavy oils. A second, smaller cylinder, 67 millimetres (2.6 in) in diameter and 25 centimetres (9.8 in) high, was mounted on top of the fuel cylinder; it contains the propellent powder, which was normally either black powder or a mixture of nitrocellulose
Nitrocellulose is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. When used as a propellant or low-order explosive, it is also known as guncotton...

 and diethylene glycol dinitrate
Diethylene glycol dinitrate
Diethylene glycol dinitrate is a nitrated alcohol ester produced by the action of concentrated nitric acid, normally admixed with an excess of strong sulfuric acid as a dehydrating agent, upon diethylene glycol....

. A flame tube was fixed centrally on top of the fuel cylinder, it was a 50 millimetres (2 in) diameter pipe that rose from the centre of the fuel cylinder and curved to extend horizontally approximately 50 centimetres (19.7 in). When the mine was buried, normally only the flame tube was above ground.

When the mine was triggered, a squib
Squib (explosive)
A squib is a miniature explosive device used in a wide range of industries, from special effects to military applications. It resembles a tiny stick of dynamite, both in appearance and construction, although with considerably less explosive power...

charge ignited the propellant, creating a burst of hot gas which forced the fuel from the main cylinder and out of the flame tube. A second squib ignited the fuel as it passed out of the end of the flame tube. The projected stream of burning fuel was 4.5 metres (14.8 ft) wide and 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) high with a range of about 27 metres (88.6 ft), and lasted about 1.5 seconds.
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