Abduction (kinesiology)
Abduction, in functional anatomy, is a movement which draws a limb
Limb (anatomy)
A limb is a jointed, or prehensile , appendage of the human or other animal body....

 away from the median (Sagittal) plane of the body. It is thus opposed to adduction
Adduction is a movement which brings a part of the anatomy closer to the middle sagittal plane of the body. It is opposed to abduction.-Upper limb:* of arm at shoulder ** Subscapularis** Teres major** Pectoralis major** Infraspinatus...


Upper limb

  • of arm
    In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow joints. In other animals, the term arm can also be used for analogous structures, such as one of the paired forelimbs of a four-legged animal or the arms of cephalopods...

     at shoulder
    The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle , the scapula , and the humerus as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons. The articulations between the bones of the shoulder make up the shoulder joints. The major joint of the shoulder is the glenohumeral joint, which...

     (raising arm)
    • Supraspinatus
    • Deltoid
      Deltoid muscle
      In human anatomy, the deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder. Anatomically, it appears to be made up of three distinct sets of fibers though electromyography suggests that it consists of at least seven groups that can be independently coordinated by the central...

  • of hand
    A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered extremity located at the end of an arm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs...

     at wrist
    In human anatomy, the wrist is variously defined as 1) the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones forming the proximal skeletal segment of the hand;...

    • Flexor carpi radialis
    • Extensor carpi radialis longus
    • Extensor carpi radialis brevis

  • of finger
    A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates....

  • of thumb
    The thumb is the first digit of the hand. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position , the thumb is the lateral-most digit...

    • Abductor pollicis longus
    • Abductor pollicis brevis

Lower limb

  • of femur
    The femur , or thigh bone, is the most proximal bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs. In vertebrates with four legs such as dogs and horses, the femur is found only in...

     at hip
    • Gluteus medius muscle
      Gluteus medius muscle
      The gluteus medius , one of the three gluteal muscles, is a broad, thick, radiating muscle, situated on the outer surface of the pelvis....

    • Gluteus minimus muscle
      Gluteus minimus muscle
      The gluteus minimus , the smallest of the three gluteal muscles, is situated immediately beneath the gluteus medius.-Origin and insertion:...

    • Sartorius muscle
      Sartorius muscle
      The Sartorius muscle – the longest muscle in the human body – is a long thin muscle that runs down the length of the thigh. Its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle.-Origin and insertion:...

    • Tensor fasciae latae muscle

  • of toe
    Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade. Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of...

    • Abductor hallucis
    • Abductor digiti minimi
      Abductor digiti minimi muscle (foot)
      The Abductor digiti minimi is a muscle which lies along the lateral border of the foot, and is in relation by its medial margin with the lateral plantar vessels and nerves....

    • Dorsal interossei of the foot
      Dorsal interossei of the foot
      In human anatomy, the dorsal interossei of the foot are four muscles situated between the metatarsal bones.- Origin :The four interossei muscles are bipenniform muscles each originating by two heads from the proximal half of the of the sides of adjacent metatarsal bones.- Insertion :The two heads...


  • vocal folds
    Vocal folds
    The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally across the larynx...

    • Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
      Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
      The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles are extremely small, paired muscles that extend from the posterior cricoid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx. By rotating the arytenoid cartilages laterally, these muscles abduct the vocal cords and thereby open the rima glottidis. Their action...

  • eyeball
    • Lateral rectus muscle
      Lateral rectus muscle
      The lateral rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit. It is one of six extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye and the only muscle innervated by the abducens nerve, cranial nerve VI....

    • Superior oblique muscle
      Superior oblique muscle
      For the abdominal muscle see: Abdominal external oblique muscleThe superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle originating in the upper, medial side of the orbit which abducts, depresses and internally rotates the eye...

    • Inferior oblique muscle
      Inferior oblique muscle
      The Obliquus oculi inferior is a thin, narrow muscle placed near the anterior margin of the floor of the orbit.-Action:Its actions are lateral rotation, elevation and abduction of the eye....

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