.577 Nitro Express
The .577 Nitro Express is a rimmed
Rim (firearms)
A rim is an external flange that is machined, cast, molded, stamped or pressed around the bottom of a firearms cartridge. The rim may serve a number of purposes, the most common being as the place for the extractor to engage...

 cartridge in the Nitro Express
Nitro Express
The Nitro Express series of cartridges are used in large-bore hunting rifles, also known as elephant guns or express rifles. They are named after the propellant they use, cordite, which is composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine...

 series of big-game hunting
Big Five game
The phrase Big Five game was coined by white hunters and refers to the five most difficult animals in Africa to hunt on foot. The term is still used in most tourist and wildlife guides that discuss African wildlife safaris. The collection consists of the lion, African elephant, cape buffalo,...

 ammunition. It is also known as the .577 Nitro Express 3" and there is a variant called the .577 Nitro Express 2.75". The .577 is notable as the standard caliber
In guns including firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the barrel in relation to the diameter of the projectile used in it....

 of professional ivory
Ivory is a term for dentine, which constitutes the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals, when used as a material for art or manufacturing. Ivory has been important since ancient times for making a range of items, from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes, joint tubes, piano keys and...

 hunters in the 19th and early 20th centuries.


It was the late Samuel Baker who had Holland & Holland build him an express rifle in this caliber.
It began as a black powder round, and then became a smokeless
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery which produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the older gunpowder which they replaced...

 round. It fires a 750-grain bullet (about 48.6 grams) at a muzzle velocity
Muzzle velocity
Muzzle velocity is the speed a projectile has at the moment it leaves the muzzle of the gun. Muzzle velocities range from approximately to in black powder muskets , to more than in modern rifles with high-performance cartridges such as the .220 Swift and .204 Ruger, all the way to for tank guns...

 of around 2050 feet per second (625 m/s),and the 2.75 in. version launches a 650 grain bullet a better than 1950 ft/s (594.4 m/s), depending on the type and amount of powder used.


A few manufactures still make rifles chambered in 577 nitro express due to its popularity including Heym
Heym is the surname of:* Georg Heym , German author* Stefan Heym , German author-See also:* Chayyim, the basis for this name* Haim * Heim...

, Holland and Holland, Butch Searcy & Co. , James Purdey and Sons
James Purdey and Sons
James Purdey & Sons - or simply "Purdey" - is a famous British gunmaker of London, and the name is synonymous with the very finest sporting shotguns and rifles. Purdeys hold or have held numerous warrants of appointment as gun and rifle makers to the British and other European royal...

, Westley Richards
Westley Richards
Westley Richards is one of the oldest surviving traditional English gunmakers. It was founded in 1812 by William Westley Richards. Their inventions included the Anson & Deeley boxlock action and the Droplock, which equals in status James Purdey's self opening and Holland & Holland's removable...

, and Hambrusch Hunting Weapons, make double rifles for this caliber. Ruger, Butch Searcy & Co.., make single shot conversions for this caliber.


This caliber is generally used for thick skinned dangerous game such as Elephant, Rhino, and Cape Buffalo. It is way too powerful for use on thin skinned game. For this purpose the old black powder version can be used. It throws a 560 grains bullet at around 1700 ft/s.


.585 Nyati
.585 Nyati
The .585 Nyati is a shoulder-fired rifle cartridge. Nyati means Cape Buffalo in many African languages such as Swahili. The .585 Nyati can generate of muzzle energy. This places it at or near the top of the list for most powerful cartridges that can be chambered in a rifle that can still be...

 has been made by blowing out the 577 Nitro Express case and turning the outer edge of the rim making it slightly rebated, making it into a "rimless" cartridge.

.577 Tyrannosaur
.577 Tyrannosaur
The .577 Tyrannosaur or .577 T-rex is a type of cartridge developed by A-Square in 1993 for big game hunting in Africa. The .577 contains a diameter Monolithic Solid Projectile which when fired moves at producing of muzzle energy. The production model from A-square is based on their Hannibal...

 has been created by Arthur Alphin of A-square co. as a replacement for a bolt action 577 nitro express.

See also

  • .600 Nitro Express
    .600 Nitro Express
    The .600 Nitro Express is a round in the Nitro Express series which was introduced in 1903. It is the second largest calibre in the Nitro Express line, exceeded only by Holland & Holland's .700 Nitro Express round.-Overview:...

  • .700 Nitro Express
    .700 Nitro Express
    The .700 Nitro Express is a big game rifle cartridge made by Holland & Holland, London, England. It was developed in 1988 by Jim Bell and William Feldstein and built by H&H. Feldstein had tried unsuccessfully to get H&H to build a .600 Nitro Express for him, but they had already ceased production...

  • Nitro Express
    Nitro Express
    The Nitro Express series of cartridges are used in large-bore hunting rifles, also known as elephant guns or express rifles. They are named after the propellant they use, cordite, which is composed of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine...

  • .577/450 Martini-Henry
    .577/450 Martini-Henry
    The .577/450 Martini-Henry was a black powder, centerfire round used by the British and British Empire militaries prior to the adoption of the .303 calibre cartridge used in the Lee-Metford, Martini-Enfield, and Lee-Enfield series of rifles alongside the Nepalese Bira gun...

  • List of rifle cartridges
  • 13 mm caliber
    13 mm caliber
    This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the caliber range and greater.*Length refers to the cartridge case length.*OAL refers to the overall length of the cartridge.*Bullet refers to the diameter of the bullet....

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