.357 SIG
Overview
 
The .357 SIG pistol
Pistol
When distinguished as a subset of handguns, a pistol is a handgun with a chamber that is integral with the barrel, as opposed to a revolver, wherein the chamber is separate from the barrel as a revolving cylinder. Typically, pistols have an effective range of about 100 feet.-History:The pistol...

 cartridge is the product of Swiss
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

-German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 firearms manufacturer SIG-Sauer
Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft
Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft , or SIG, is the former name of SIG Holding AG, a Swiss company that has been active in various businesses during its more than 150 years of operation. Since the year 2000 the Society has undergone strategic refocus, concentrating on its core compentence in...

, in cooperation with the American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 ammunition
Ammunition
Ammunition is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which embraced all material used for war , but which in time came to refer specifically to gunpowder and artillery. The collective term for all types of ammunition is munitions...

 manufacturer Federal Cartridge
Federal Cartridge
Federal Cartridge is a wholly owned subsidiary of Alliant Techsystems, located in Edina, Minnesota. With a work force of nearly 1,000 in Anoka, Minnesota, Federal manufactures a complete line of shotshell, centerfire, and rimfire ammunition and components....

. While it is based on a .40 S&W
.40 S&W
The .40 S&W is a rimless pistol cartridge developed jointly by major American firearms manufacturers Winchester and Smith & Wesson. The .40 S&W was developed from the ground up as a law enforcement cartridge designed to duplicate performance of the FBI's reduced velocity 10mm cartridge which could...

 case necked down to accept 0.355 inches (9 mm) bullets, the .357 SIG brass is slightly longer (0.009 inch (0.2286 mm) to 0.02 inch (0.508 mm)). The cartridge is used by a number of law enforcement agencies and has a good reputation for both accuracy and stopping power.
Developed in 1994, the new cartridge was named "357" to highlight its purpose: to duplicate the performance of 125 gr .357 Magnum
.357 Magnum
The .357 S&W Magnum , or simply .357 Magnum, is a revolver cartridge created by Elmer Keith, Phillip B. Sharpe, Colonel D. B. Wesson of firearms manufacturer Smith & Wesson, and Winchester. It is based upon Smith & Wesson's earlier .38 Special cartridge. The .357 Magnum cartridge was introduced in...

 loads fired from 4 inches (101.6 mm) barreled revolvers, in a cartridge designed to be used in a semi-automatic pistol.
Encyclopedia
The .357 SIG pistol
Pistol
When distinguished as a subset of handguns, a pistol is a handgun with a chamber that is integral with the barrel, as opposed to a revolver, wherein the chamber is separate from the barrel as a revolving cylinder. Typically, pistols have an effective range of about 100 feet.-History:The pistol...

 cartridge is the product of Swiss
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

-German
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 firearms manufacturer SIG-Sauer
Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft
Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft , or SIG, is the former name of SIG Holding AG, a Swiss company that has been active in various businesses during its more than 150 years of operation. Since the year 2000 the Society has undergone strategic refocus, concentrating on its core compentence in...

, in cooperation with the American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 ammunition
Ammunition
Ammunition is a generic term derived from the French language la munition which embraced all material used for war , but which in time came to refer specifically to gunpowder and artillery. The collective term for all types of ammunition is munitions...

 manufacturer Federal Cartridge
Federal Cartridge
Federal Cartridge is a wholly owned subsidiary of Alliant Techsystems, located in Edina, Minnesota. With a work force of nearly 1,000 in Anoka, Minnesota, Federal manufactures a complete line of shotshell, centerfire, and rimfire ammunition and components....

. While it is based on a .40 S&W
.40 S&W
The .40 S&W is a rimless pistol cartridge developed jointly by major American firearms manufacturers Winchester and Smith & Wesson. The .40 S&W was developed from the ground up as a law enforcement cartridge designed to duplicate performance of the FBI's reduced velocity 10mm cartridge which could...

 case necked down to accept 0.355 inches (9 mm) bullets, the .357 SIG brass is slightly longer (0.009 inch (0.2286 mm) to 0.02 inch (0.508 mm)). The cartridge is used by a number of law enforcement agencies and has a good reputation for both accuracy and stopping power.

History

Developed in 1994, the new cartridge was named "357" to highlight its purpose: to duplicate the performance of 125 gr .357 Magnum
.357 Magnum
The .357 S&W Magnum , or simply .357 Magnum, is a revolver cartridge created by Elmer Keith, Phillip B. Sharpe, Colonel D. B. Wesson of firearms manufacturer Smith & Wesson, and Winchester. It is based upon Smith & Wesson's earlier .38 Special cartridge. The .357 Magnum cartridge was introduced in...

 loads fired from 4 inches (101.6 mm) barreled revolvers, in a cartridge designed to be used in a semi-automatic pistol. Performance is similar to the 9x23mm Winchester
9x23mm Winchester
The 9x23 Winchester is a pistol cartridge developed by Winchester repeating arms. 9x23mm has a long and convoluted development history, but was commercially introduced by Winchester in 1996...

.

The .357 SIG provided a self-defense cartridge close in performance to a 125 gr .357 Magnum, but from a semi-automatic pistol with greater ammunition capacity.

Other than specialized competition cartridges like the 9x25mm Dillon (1988), necking a 10mm Auto case down to a 9mm bullet, the .357 SIG was the first modern bottleneck commercial handgun cartridge since the early 1960s, when Remington introduced the unsuccessful .22 Remington Jet
.22 Remington Jet
The .22 Remington Jet is a .22 in American centerfire revolver and rifle cartridge....

 (1961), which necked a .357 Magnum
.357 Magnum
The .357 S&W Magnum , or simply .357 Magnum, is a revolver cartridge created by Elmer Keith, Phillip B. Sharpe, Colonel D. B. Wesson of firearms manufacturer Smith & Wesson, and Winchester. It is based upon Smith & Wesson's earlier .38 Special cartridge. The .357 Magnum cartridge was introduced in...

 case down to a .22 caliber bullet, and the .221 Remington Fireball (1963). Soon after the .357 SIG, other bottleneck commercial handgun cartridges appeared: the .400 Corbon
.400 Corbon
The .400 Corbon is an automatic pistol cartridge developed by Cor-Bon in 1997. It was created to mimic the ballistics of the powerful 10 mm Auto cartridge by means of a .45 ACP case, necked down to .40 caliber with a 25 degree shoulder....

 (1996), necking the .45 ACP
.45 ACP
The .45 ACP , also known as the .45 Auto by C.I.P., is a cartridge designed by John Browning in 1904, for use in his prototype Colt semi-automatic .45 pistol and eventually the M1911 pistol adopted by the United States Army in 1911.-Design and history:The U.S...

 down to .40 caliber; the .440 Corbon
.440 Cor-bon
The Cor-Bon company produced the .440 Cor-bon cartridge in 1998. As is fairly typical in the wildcat cartridge industry, this cartridge necked down from an existing cartridge, the .50 AE to accept a .44-caliber bullet....

 (1998), necking down the .50 AE
.50 Action Express
The .50 Action Express is a large caliber handgun cartridge. It was developed in 1988 by Evan Whildin of Action Arms. The .50 AE is one of the most powerful pistol cartridges in production.-Overview:...

 to .44 caliber; the .32 NAA
.32 NAA
The .32NAA is a cartridge/firearm 'system' designed and developed by the partnership of North American Arms and Cor-bon Ammunition. The cartridge is based on a .380 ACP case, which is necked-down to hold a 32 caliber bullet with the goal being an improvement in ballistic performance over either the...

 (2002), necking the .380 ACP
.380 ACP
The .380 ACP pistol cartridge is a rimless, straight-walled pistol cartridge developed by firearms designer John Browning. The cartridge headspaces on the mouth of the case. It was introduced in 1908 by Colt, and has been a popular self-defense cartridge ever since...

 down to .32 caliber; and the .25 NAA
.25 NAA
The .25 NAA was introduced by North American Arms company for their smaller & and lighter .32 ACP Guardian model. It is simply the .32 ACP necked down to accept .251" diameter bullets....

 (2004), necking the .32 ACP
.32 ACP
.32 ACP , also known as the .32 Automatic is a pistol cartridge. It is a semi-rimmed, straight-walled cartridge developed by firearms designer John Browning, initially for use in the FN M1900 semi-automatic pistol...

 down to .25 caliber.

Cartridge dimensions

The .357 SIG has 1.27 ml
Litre
pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

 (19.5 grains
Grain (measure)
A grain is a unit of measurement of mass that is nominally based upon the mass of a single seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definition of units of mass. However, there is no evidence of any country ever...

) H2O cartridge case capacity.
.357 SIG maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).

Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2=18 degrees. The common rifling
Rifling
Rifling is the process of making helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or firearm, which imparts a spin to a projectile around its long axis...

 twist rate for this cartridge is 406 mm (1 in 16 in), 6 grooves, Ø lands=8.71 mm, Ø grooves=9.02 mm, land width=2.69 mm and the primer type
Percussion cap
The percussion cap, introduced around 1830, was the crucial invention that enabled muzzleloading firearms to fire reliably in any weather.Before this development, firearms used flintlock ignition systems which produced flint-on-steel sparks to ignite a pan of priming powder and thereby fire the...

 is small pistol.

Several sources have published contradicting information regarding .357 SIG headspacing.
According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente Pour L'Epreuve Des Armes A Feu Portatives) 2007 guidelines the .357 SIG headspaces on the shoulder (P2-H1). Some US sources concur this C.I.P. ruling.
US reloading supplier Lyman once published the .357 SIG headspaces on the case mouth (H2).

According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente Pour L'Epreuve Des Armes A Feu Portatives) guidelines the .357 SIG case can handle up to 305 MPa (44,236 psi) piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every pistol cartridge combo has to be proofed at 130% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers.

The SAAMI
Saami
Saami or SAAMI can stand for:*Sami people*Sami languages*Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute...

 pressure limit for the .357 SIG is set at 275.80 MPa (40,000 psi
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units...

), piezo pressure.

Conversions

Most .40 S&W pistols can be converted to .357 SIG by replacing the barrel, but sometimes the recoil spring must be changed as well. Pistols with especially strong recoil springs can accept either cartridge with a barrel change. Magazines will freely interchange between the two cartridges in most pistols. .357 SIG barrel kits have allowed this cartridge to gain in popularity among handgun owners. However, the .357 SIG is loaded to higher pressures than the .40 S&W (the C.I.P. and the SAAMI pressure limits for .40 S&W are 225 MPa and 35,000 psi
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units...

), and may not be suitable for use in all .40 S&W-chambered pistols due to the increase in bolt thrust
Bolt thrust
Bolt thrust or breech pressure is a term used in internal ballistics and firearms that describes the amount of rearward force exerted by the propellant gases on the bolt or breech of a firearm action or breech when a projectile is fired...

.

Performance

The table below shows common performance parameters for several .357 SIG loads. Bullet weights ranging from 115 to 150 grains have been offered. Loads are available with energies from 488 (ft•lbf) to over 568 (ft•lbf), and penetration depths from 9 inches to over 16.5 inches are available for various applications and risk assessments.
Manufacturer Load Mass (grains) Velocity (ft/s) Energy (ft•lbf) Expansion (inches) Penetration (inches) PC (cu in) TSC (cu in)
Triton Quik-Shok 115 1425 518 frag 9.0 4.1 43.2 (est)
Winchester Ranger T 125 1385 532 0.75 11.5 5.1 45.0 (est)
Federal Premium JHP 125 1430 568 0.62 12.7 3.8 49.5 (est)
Speer Gold Dot JHP 125 1385 532 0.68 16.5 6.0 45.0 (est)
Remington JHP 125 1350 506 0.57 14.3 3.6 41.7 (est)
Federal Premium JHP 150 1210 488 0.60 15.0 4.2 39.4 (est)



Key:

Expansion – expanded bullet diameter (ballistic gelatin).

Penetration – penetration depth (ballistic gelatin).

PC – permanent cavity volume (ballistic gelatin, FBI method).

TSC – temporary stretch cavity volume (ballistic gelatin).

Because of its relatively high velocity for a handgun round, the .357 SIG has an unusually flat trajectory, extending the effective range. However, it does not quite reach the performance of the .357 Magnum
.357 Magnum
The .357 S&W Magnum , or simply .357 Magnum, is a revolver cartridge created by Elmer Keith, Phillip B. Sharpe, Colonel D. B. Wesson of firearms manufacturer Smith & Wesson, and Winchester. It is based upon Smith & Wesson's earlier .38 Special cartridge. The .357 Magnum cartridge was introduced in...

 with bullets heavier than 125 gr. Offsetting this general slight disadvantage in performance is that semi-automatic pistols tend to carry considerably more ammunition than revolvers.

The Virginia State Police has reported that attacking dogs have been stopped dead in their tracks by a single shot, whereas the former 147 grain 9 mm duty rounds would require multiple shots to incapacitate the animals. Proponents of the hydrostatic shock
Hydrostatic shock
Hydrostatic shock or hydraulic shock describes the observation that a penetrating projectile can produce remote wounding and incapacitating effects in living targets through a hydraulic effect in their liquid-filled tissues, in addition to local effects in tissue caused by direct impact...

 theory contend that the energy available in the .357 SIG is sufficient for imparting hydrostatic shock with well-designed bullets. Users have commented, "We're really impressed with the stopping power of the .357 SIG round."

The bottleneck shape of the .357 SIG cartridge makes feeding problems almost non-existent. This is because the bullet is channeled through the larger chamber before being seated entirely as the slide goes into full battery. Flat point bullets are seldom used with other autoloader platforms because of feeding problems; however, such bullets are commonly seen in the .357 SIG chambering and are quite reliable, as are hollow-point bullets.

The "Accurate Powder" reloading manuals claims that it is "without a doubt the most ballistically consistent handgun cartridge we have ever worked with."

Characteristics

The goal of the .357 SIG project was to offer a level of performance equal to the highly effective 125 gr .357 Magnum load. The .357 SIG accomplishes this with a 125 gr bullet at a muzzle velociy of 1450 feet per second (442 m/s) out of a 4 in (102 mm) barrel, which is generally identical to the velocity achieved by standard factory 125 grr .357 Magnum loads out of a 4 in (102 mm) revolver barrel. The .357 SIG gains extra muzzle velocity when fired from a longer barrel, like an after-market drop-in 6 in (152 mm) barrel.

With a simplistic approach to physics, recoil being directly proportional to "muzzle velocity x bullet mass" (due to conservation of momentum), the recoil of the .357 SIG is equal to or slightly less than that of the .40 S&W, and less than that of the full-power 10 mm Auto
10 mm Auto
The 10mm Auto is a semi-automatic pistol cartridge developed by Jeff Cooper and introduced in 1983 for the Bren Ten pistol. It was initially produced by ammunitions manufacturer FFV Norma AB of Åmotfors, Sweden.Although it was selected by the F.B.I. for use in the field following the 1986 F.B.I...

 loads or the original .357 Magnum, Handgun Recoil table as well as Federal and. This simple approach to recoil is only part of the story as it is not only the properties of the bullet that produce recoil, a more important effect is the rocket like blast of propellant gases coming out of the barrel, after the bullet leaves the muzzle, that plays a greater role in the felt recoil. A more accurate view on recoil is that it is proportional to the mass of all ejecta x velocity of ejecta. Even so, recoil calculated in this manner is only the starting point in a comparison with the .357 Magnum cartridge, since the latter is used in a revolver, in which all the recoil energy is due to the Bullet and propellant
Propellant
A propellant is a material that produces pressurized gas that:* can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust ;...

, while the .357 SIG cartridge is frequently used in a semi-automatic pistol of recoil operation
Recoil operation
Recoil operation is an operating mechanism used in locked-breech, autoloading firearms. As the name implies, these actions use the force of recoil to provide energy to cycle the action...

, in which a significant portion of the recoil energy is diverted to cycle the action, effectively prolonging the recoil phase.

In comparing the energy levels of premium self defense ammunition the muzzle energy of 584 ft.lbs (792 J) of the 125 gr 1450 feet per second (442 m/s) .357 SIG load is higher than either the 475 ft·lbf (644 J) generated by a 155 gr 1175 feet per second (358.1 m/s) Speer GoldDot .40 S&W
.40 S&W
The .40 S&W is a rimless pistol cartridge developed jointly by major American firearms manufacturers Winchester and Smith & Wesson. The .40 S&W was developed from the ground up as a law enforcement cartridge designed to duplicate performance of the FBI's reduced velocity 10mm cartridge which could...

 load or the 400 ft·lbf (540 J) generated by a 180 gr 985 feet per second (300.2 m/s) Speer GoldDot .40 S&W load.

Like the 10 mm Auto, the .357 SIG can be down-loaded to reduce recoil, to the point where recoil is similar to that of a 9x19mm Parabellum. However, since the .357 SIG uses bullets that are generally the same as those used in the 9 mm Para, downloading it to this point would defeat the purpose of having the SIG cartridge in the first place, as recoil and ballistics would be identical to the less-powerful 9 mm cartridge.

Because the .357 SIG fires at relatively high pressures, muzzle flash and noise are significant with standard loads, even with longer barrels. Utilizing loads with specialized powders and experimenting with different bullet weights can reduce flash.

Implementation

In 1995, the Texas Highway Patrol
Texas Highway Patrol
The Texas Highway Patrol is a division of the Texas Department of Public Safety and has the responsibility for general police traffic supervision, traffic, and criminal law enforcement on the rural highways of Texas...

 became the first government agency to deploy a firearm utilizing .357 SIG cartridge.

The SIG-Sauer P229 in .357 SIG has been adopted for use by agents and officers of the following organizations:
  • United States Secret Service
    United States Secret Service
    The United States Secret Service is a United States federal law enforcement agency that is part of the United States Department of Homeland Security. The sworn members are divided among the Special Agents and the Uniformed Division. Until March 1, 2003, the Service was part of the United States...

    ,
  • Bureau of Industry and Security
    Bureau of Industry and Security
    The Bureau of Industry and Security is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce which deals with issues involving national security and high technology. A principal goal for the bureau is helping stop proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, while furthering the growth of United...

    ,
  • Federal Air Marshals,
  • Delaware State Police
    Delaware State Police
    The Delaware State Police is a division of the Delaware Department of Public Safety and Homeland Security and is responsible for traffic regulation and law enforcement across the state of Delaware, especially in areas underserved by local police departments...

    ,
  • Rhode Island State Police
    Rhode Island State Police
    The Rhode Island State Police is an agency of the state of Rhode Island responsible for statewide law enforcement and regulation, especially in areas underserved by local police agencies and on the state's limited-access highways...

    ,
  • Virginia State Police
    Virginia State Police
    Virginia State Police is a state agency, conceived in 1919 and established in 1932, that acts as the state police force for the Commonwealth of Virginia. The agency originated out of the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles as an inspector and enforcer of highway laws...

    ,
  • Richmond City Police, Virginia
    Richmond, Virginia
    Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

    ,
  • Bastrop County Sheriff's Office,
  • Alameda County Sheriff's Office
    Alameda County Sheriff's Office
    The Alameda County Sheriff's Office is a law enforcement agency serving Alameda County, California. The ACSO is accredited through the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies , the American Correctional Association , National Commission on Correctional Health Care and the...

    ,
  • Montana Highway Patrol
    Montana Highway Patrol
    The Montana Highway Patrol is the highway patrol agency for Montana, which has jurisdiction anywhere in the state. It was created to protect the lives, property and constitutional rights of people in Montana.-History:...

  • North Carolina Highway Patrol


The Tennessee Highway Patrol
Tennessee Highway Patrol
The Tennessee Highway Patrol is the highway patrol agency for the U.S. state of Tennessee, responsible for enforcing all federal and state laws relating to traffic on the state's federal and state highways. It is a component of the Department of Safety....

 presently issues the Glock 31 pistol chambered in .357 SIG.
The Mississippi Highway Patrol
Mississippi Highway Patrol
The Mississippi Highway Patrol is the highway patrol, acting state police agency for Mississippi, which has jurisdiction over most of the state, and specializes in the patrol of state and federal highways in the State of Mississippi. It was formed in 1938 to enforce traffic laws on state and...

 issues a (Glock 31 Generation 4) with their logo engraved on the weapon. The Bedford Heights Police Department in Ohio currently issues the Glock 31/32/33. The Elloree Police Department in South Carolina Elloree Police also issues the Glock 31, .357 SIG and the Madison Police Department in Madison, WV issues the Glock 32 in .357 SIG. The Lexington Police Department in North Carolina issues the Sig P229 DAK in .357 Sig. The Oklahoma Highway Patrol issues the SIG-Sauer P226 in .357 SIG. The Paramus Police Department in New Jersey also issues the SIG P226 in .357 SIG. The West Grove Borough Police Department, West Grove PA, also carry the SIG-Sauer P226 in the .357 SIG caliber.
The North Carolina State Highway Patrol
North Carolina State Highway Patrol
The North Carolina State Highway Patrol is the highway patrol agency for North Carolina which has no per-se "state police" agency. The Patrol has jurisdiction anywhere in the state except for federal or military installations. The Highway Patrol was created in 1929 and is a paramilitary...

 uses Smith & Wesson M&P's chambered in .357 SIG. The Herculaneum (Missouri) Police Department uses the P226 and P229 in .357 SIG. The Orlando Police Department uses the Sig-Sauer P226 in .357 SIG.

See also

  • List of firearms
  • List of handgun cartridges
  • 9 mm caliber
    9 mm caliber
    This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the caliber range. The most prevalent of these rounds is the 9x19mm Parabellum.*Length refers to the cartridge case length.*OAL refers to the overall length of the cartridge....

  • .357 SuperMag
  • .357 Remington Maximum
    .357 Remington Maximum
    The .357 Maximum, formally known as the .357 Remington Maximum or the .357 Max, is a super magnum handgun cartridge originally developed by Elgin Gates as the wildcat .357 SuperMag. The .357 Maximum was introduced into commercial production as a joint-venture by Remington Arms Company and Ruger in...

  • .357 Magnum
    .357 Magnum
    The .357 S&W Magnum , or simply .357 Magnum, is a revolver cartridge created by Elmer Keith, Phillip B. Sharpe, Colonel D. B. Wesson of firearms manufacturer Smith & Wesson, and Winchester. It is based upon Smith & Wesson's earlier .38 Special cartridge. The .357 Magnum cartridge was introduced in...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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