Türkmenbaşy, or Turkmenbashi in anglified spelling, literally "Head of all Turkmens
Turkmen people
The Turkmen are a Turkic people located primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and northeastern Iran. They speak the Turkmen language, which is classified as a part of the Western Oghuz branch of the Turkic languages family together with Turkish, Azerbaijani, Qashqai,...

," is a term coined by Saparmurat Niyazov
Saparmurat Niyazov
Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov; , was a Turkmen politician who served as President of Turkmenistan from 2 November 1990 until his death in 2006...

 that was used in several contexts:
  • A title Niyazov bestowed upon himself during his lifetime term
    President for Life
    President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to remove their term limit, in the hope that their authority, legitimacy, and term will never be disputed....

     as President of Turkmenistan
    President of Turkmenistan
    -First Secretaries of the Turkmen Communist Party:*Ivan Mezhlauk *Shaymardan Ibragimov *Nikolay Paskutsky *Grigory Aronshtam...

     from 1991 to 2006

  • The name of several cities in Turkmenistan
    Turkmenistan , formerly also known as Turkmenia is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic . Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states...

     renamed by Niyazov, the largest of which is Türkmenbaşy
    Türkmenbasy, Turkmenistan
    Türkmenbaşy , formerly known as Krasnovodsk and, more properly, Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. It is located at latitude 40.0231 North; longitude 52.9697 East, at an altitude of 27 meters. The population was 86,800, mostly...

    , Balkan Province
    Balkan Province
    Balkan Province is one of the Welayat of Turkmenistan. It is in the far west of the country, bordering Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, the Caspian Sea, and Iran. Its capital is Balkanabat, formerly known as Nebit Dag. It has an area of 139,270 square kilometers and a population of approximately 553,500...

    , formerly known by the Russian name Krasnovodsk.

  • The Turkmen
    Turkmen language
    Turkmen is the national language of Turkmenistan...

     name for the month of January, renamed by Niyazov in 2002; see Renaming of Turkmen months and days of week, 2002
    Renaming of Turkmen months and days of week, 2002
    On August 10, 2002, the government of Turkmenistan adopted a law to rename all the months and most of the days of week. The names were chosen according to Turkmen national symbols, as described in Ruhnama, a book written by Saparmurat Niyazov, Turkmenistan's first president for life...

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