St. John Ambulance
Overview
 
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid
First aid
First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by non-expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care...

 and the provision of ambulance
Ambulance
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient...

 services, all of which derive their origins from the St John Ambulance Association founded in 1877 in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. Each national group falls within the charge of a Priory or National Council of the Venerable Order of Saint John
Venerable Order of Saint John
The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem , is a royal order of chivalry established in 1831 and found today throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, Ireland and the United States of America, with the world-wide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and...

 in which each Priory ranks alongside the others.

In several priories St John Ambulance has commercial sections or subsidiaries operating to generate surplus for charitable activities; these are structured much like other commercial bodies.
Encyclopedia
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid
First aid
First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by non-expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care...

 and the provision of ambulance
Ambulance
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient...

 services, all of which derive their origins from the St John Ambulance Association founded in 1877 in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. Each national group falls within the charge of a Priory or National Council of the Venerable Order of Saint John
Venerable Order of Saint John
The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem , is a royal order of chivalry established in 1831 and found today throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, Ireland and the United States of America, with the world-wide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and...

 in which each Priory ranks alongside the others.

In several priories St John Ambulance has commercial sections or subsidiaries operating to generate surplus for charitable activities; these are structured much like other commercial bodies. The membership aspect of St John Ambulance is largely ranked, and members fall into a hierarchical structure of command. Ranks
St John Ambulance Ranks and Insignia
From its beginnings, the St. John Ambulance Brigade employed ranks and insignia to distinguish grades within its membership and management structure; these were extended across the wider organisation following its merge with the St John Ambulance Association to form St. John Ambulance...

 run from corporal
Corporal
Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. It is usually equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-4....

s, through sergeant
Sergeant
Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent....

s and officers all the way up to high national ranks, but there is significant variation between Priories and it is hard to generalise the structure too much from an international perspective.

Most members of St John Ambulance are not themselves members of the Order, and vice versa, so a major presence of the Order does not dictate a major presence of St John Ambulance. Most notably, the Order of St John is a Christian
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 organisation, whereas St John Ambulance is keen to ensure there is no allegiance to any particular religion or denomination, so as to remain available to all. St John Ambulance works on a more geographical nature than the Order, and has to contend with the differing national laws, medical practices and cultures of countries.

National and regional

The legal status of each organisation varies by country; in both England and Wales the resident St John Ambulance organisations are simultaneously but separately registered as charities and companies, whereas St John Ambulance South Africa (for the sake of example) is a distinct entity registered as a "public benefit organisation".

Due to the significant differences between St John Ambulance in different countries, separate articles are provided for each independent presence:

alphabetical order
  • St John Ambulance in Australia
    St John Ambulance Australia
    St John Ambulance Australia is a self-funding charitable organisation dedicated to helping people in sickness, distress, suffering or danger. It is part of an international organisation that consists of eight Priories that form the Order of St John.- History :St John First Aid training centres...

  • St. John Ambulance in British Forces Overseas
  • St John Ambulance in Canada
  • St John Ambulance in England and the Islands
  • St John Ambulance in Hong Kong
    Hong Kong St. John Ambulance
    Hong Kong St. John Ambulance is a charitable organization with a long history stretching back over a century and has been serving the community since 1884...

  • St John Ambulance in India
  • St John Ambulance in Ireland
    St. John Ambulance Brigade of Ireland
    The St. John Ambulance Brigade of Ireland is a charitable voluntary organisation in the Republic of Ireland. For constitutional reasons it is not a full member association of the Venerable Order of Saint John and the international St. John Ambulance movement, but rather is classed as an...

  • St John Ambulance in Malaysia
  • St John Ambulance in New Zealand
  • St. John Ambulance in Singapore
    St. John Ambulance in Singapore
    St John Ambulance Singapore is a voluntary organisation in Singapore which provides training in First Aid and Home Nursing. Its members also perform voluntary first aid coverage duties during national events....

  • St John Ambulance in South Africa
    St. John Ambulance South Africa
    St John Ambulance is a charity , part of the wider international Order of St. John, dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid...

  • St. John Ambulance in Sri Lanka
    St. John Ambulance in Sri Lanka
    The St. John Association for Sri Lanka is a charitable organisation providing healthcare services to the Sri Lankan public. Its members also perform voluntary first aid coverage duties during national events. It is a part of the St John Ambulance Foundation.The headquarters is located at 65/11,...

  • St John Ambulance in Wales
    St John Ambulance in Wales
    St John Ambulance in Wales is a charity dedicated to the teaching and practice of first aid. It is a subsidiary charity of the Priory of Wales of the wider international Order of St...



Ophthalmic Hospital in Jerusalem

Another foundation the Order of St. John maintains is the Ophthalmic Hospital in Jerusalem, which provides free comprehensive patient care and nursing treatment to sufferers from eye disease and injury in the Jerusalem region, regardless of the religion or ethnicity of the patient.

Johanniter International

In the consequence of World War II, British soldiers established St John brigades in Germany. In cooperation with "Johanniter Orden" (the German Order of St. John) "Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe" was founded in 1952. In the recent years more national St. John cooperations not directly linked to their British "mother" have been installed in Europe.
  • Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe
    Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe
    Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe e.V. , commonly referred to as Die Johanniter, is a voluntary humanitarian organisation affiliated with the Brandenburg Bailiwick of the Order of St John, the German Protestant descendant of the Knights Hospitaller...

     - Germany, Austria and Poland


At the international meeting of the enterprises of the Orders of St John, in the course of celebrations to mark the order's 900th anniversary in 1999, the idea to cooperate more intensively within Europe was born. As a result Johanniter International
Johanniter International
Johanniter International is a non-profit organisation formed as an international partnership between national charities of The Alliance of the Orders of St. John of Jerusalem...

 today links 16 national St. John organisations all over Europe.

Name and mottoes

In the phrase "Order of St John", St is an abbreviation for Saint, and corporate and national logos began to reflect this as a change from St. (with the dot) in 2006-7. (See Abbreviation article.)

The unusual name of the organisation has been known to cause confusion to members of the public, and many people often assume that the "St John" prefix indicates a church
Christian Church
The Christian Church is the assembly or association of followers of Jesus Christ. The Greek term ἐκκλησία that in its appearances in the New Testament is usually translated as "church" basically means "assembly"...

 related organisation. In fact, in its modern form, the prefix refers to the Order of St. John
Venerable Order of Saint John
The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem , is a royal order of chivalry established in 1831 and found today throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, Ireland and the United States of America, with the world-wide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and...

 (which in fact is a Christian organisation) and is used as an adjective. However, it is often assumed to be used as a noun, and this leads to the organisation being frequently incorrectly termed "St John's Ambulance", a long standing source of irritation to some members. This is further perpetuated since members on duty are often referred to collectively as "St Johns". In terms of the Order, the original allegiance was to John the Baptist
John the Baptist
John the Baptist was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. He is described in the Gospel of Luke as a relative of Jesus, who led a movement of baptism at the Jordan River...

; this allegiance is not however inherited by St John Ambulance.

The order's mottoes are Pro fide (For the faith) and Pro utilitate hominum (For the service of mankind). The 'Priory of England and The Islands' has recently replaced the Latin mottoes with a single English sentence: "For the faith and in the service of humanity", which some see as a controversial move. However in December 2006 it was agreed by Priory Council that this move should be partially reversed and the Latin mottoes were reintroduced in the Cadet Code of Chivalry.

Structure of the Order

The order is not to be confused with the Sovereign Military Order of Malta or other members of The Alliance of the Orders of St. John of Jerusalem
The Alliance of the Orders of St. John of Jerusalem
The Alliance of the Orders of St. John of Jerusalem is a federation of Protestant religious orders in Europe that claim shared inheritance of the tradition of the mediaeval military Knights Hospitaller ....

. There are also "copycat" organisations using the St John name which are not generally recognised by members of the Alliance of Orders of St John.

International

Falling under the direction of the Order of St John
Venerable Order of Saint John
The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem , is a royal order of chivalry established in 1831 and found today throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, Ireland and the United States of America, with the world-wide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and...

, St John Ambulance mirrors the structure of the Order. The Order is divided internationally into Priories
Priory
A priory is a house of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or religious sisters , or monasteries of monks or nuns .The Benedictines and their offshoots , the Premonstratensians, and the...

, reflecting the monastic history of the original Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta , also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's...

. However, these modern priories are not monastic in nature and are used purely as terminology within the organisation. Eight priories are prescribed by the Order of St John Regulations:
  • The Priory of England and The Islands (including the Commandery of Ards in Northern Ireland)
  • The Priory of Scotland
  • The Priory in Australia (Victoria, including the Commandery of Western Australia)
  • The Priory of Canada
  • The Priory in New Zealand
  • The Priory for South Africa
  • The Priory in the United States of America
  • The Priory for Wales


The Priory of England and The Islands is the home priory of the Order, and any country which does not belong to its own dedicated priory is assumed into this home priory. Most of these are small Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 islands, or countries in which there is only a minor presence.

That said, the relationship between the Order of St. John and St. John Ambulance is not directly paralleled. This explains somewhat why a breakdown into Priories may not be tantamount to a breakdown of St John Ambulance.

Key dates

  • 1511: The young King Henry VIII
    Henry VIII of England
    Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

     was named protector of the Order .
  • 1540: The English branch of the Order of St John, the Knights Hospitaller
    Knights Hospitaller
    The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta , also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's...

    s, property is confiscated by Henry VIII.
  • 1826: An idea to re-establish the Order within Britain is put forward by some remaining French Knights of the original worldwide Order.
  • 1841: The "St John's Day Declaration" is prepared, seeking official recognition of the new British Order by the original Order, now known as SMOM.
  • 10 July 1877: St John Ambulance Association formed to teach first-aid in large railway centres and mining districts.
  • June 1887: St John Ambulance Brigade is formed as a uniformed organisation to provide a First Aid and Ambulance services at public events.
  • 14 May 1888: British Order of St John is granted royal charter by Queen Victoria.
  • 1908: By mutual agreement with St Andrew's Ambulance Association, St John Ambulance Association ceased operating in Scotland
    Scotland
    Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

     but the Order continued to operate.
  • 1974 The St John Ambulance Association and The St John Ambulance Brigade were amalgamated to form the present St John Ambulance Foundation
  • 1999: The Order of St John celebrated its 900th anniversary worldwide
  • 1999: The Order of St John restructured, introducing the new Priory of England and the Islands
  • 1999: Restrictions to membership on religion and nationality were lifted

See also

  • Order of St John
    Venerable Order of Saint John
    The Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem , is a royal order of chivalry established in 1831 and found today throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, Ireland and the United States of America, with the world-wide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and...

  • St John Ambulance Ranks and Insignia
    St John Ambulance Ranks and Insignia
    From its beginnings, the St. John Ambulance Brigade employed ranks and insignia to distinguish grades within its membership and management structure; these were extended across the wider organisation following its merge with the St John Ambulance Association to form St. John Ambulance...

  • Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
    Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
    The Order of Malta Ambulance Corps is the largest voluntary ambulance and first aid organisation of its kind in Ireland. The Order of Malta is engaged in teaching first aid, providing ambulance cover at large events, patient transport, community and nursing services...

  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta
  • Red Cross
  • Insignia of the Venerable Order of St John
  • Service Medal of the Order of St John
    Service Medal of the Order of St John
    The Service Medal of the Order of St John is an award given to those that have provided a requisite number or years service to the Venerable Order of St John...

  • St John Ambulance Cadets in the UK
    St John Ambulance Cadets in the UK
    St John Ambulance Cadets is a youth section of St John Ambulance for members aged between 10 and 17 . It was founded in 1922, in order to train young people in first aid, and other essential skills. It has grown to be one of the biggest youth organisations in the United Kingdom, with over 20,000...

  • Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe
    Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe
    Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe e.V. , commonly referred to as Die Johanniter, is a voluntary humanitarian organisation affiliated with the Brandenburg Bailiwick of the Order of St John, the German Protestant descendant of the Knights Hospitaller...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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