Légion d'honneur
The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Order (decoration)
An order or order of merit is a visible honour, awarded by a government, dynastic house or international organization to an individual, usually in recognition of distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. The distinction between orders and decorations is somewhat vague, except that most...

 established by Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon I of France
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic
French First Republic
The French First Republic was founded on 22 September 1792, by the newly established National Convention. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First French Empire in 1804 under Napoleon I...

, on 19 May 1802. The Order is the highest decoration in France and is divided into five various degrees: Chevalier (Knight), Officier (Officer), Commandeur (Commander), Grand Officier (Grand Officer) and Grand Croix (Grand Cross).

The order's motto
A motto is a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of a social group or organization. A motto may be in any language, but Latin is the most used. The local language is usual in the mottoes of governments...

 is ("Honour and Fatherland"), and its seat
Seat (legal entity)
In strict legal language, the term seat defines the seat of a corporation or organisation as a legal entity, indicating where the headquarters of this entity are located...

 is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur
Palais de la Légion d'Honneur
The Palais de la Légion d'Honneur is the building on the west bank of the River Seine in Paris that houses the Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie and is the seat of the Légion d'honneur, the highest order of chivalry of France...

 on the left bank of the River Seine in Paris.


In the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

 all French orders of chivalry
Chivalric order
Chivalric orders are societies and fellowships of knights that have been created by European monarchs in imitation of the military orders of the Crusades...

 were abolished. It was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul and de facto sole ruler, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers and from this wish was instituted a Légion d'Honneur, a body of men that was not an order of chivalry
Chivalry is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood which has an aristocratic military origin of individual training and service to others. Chivalry was also the term used to refer to a group of mounted men-at-arms as well as to martial valour...

, for Napoleon did know that France did not want a new nobility system, but a recognition of merit
Order of Merit (disambiguation)
Order of Merit may refer to:Extant national orders:* Order of Merit of Antigua and Barbuda, see Commonwealth realms orders and decorations* Order of Merit * Order of Merit of the Bahamas* Order of Merit of the Police Forces...

. The Légion used however the organization of old French Orders of Chivalry, like the Ordre de Saint-Louis. The badges of the legion do bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint Louis, which also used a red ribbon.

The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman Legion
Roman legion
A Roman legion normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens. The organization of legions varied greatly over time but they were typically composed of perhaps 5,000 soldiers, divided into maniples and later into "cohorts"...

, with legionaries
The Roman legionary was a professional soldier of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Legionaries had to be Roman citizens under the age of 45. They enlisted in a legion for twenty-five years of service, a change from the early practice of enlisting only for a campaign...

, officers
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

, commanders, regional "cohort
Cohort (military unit)
A cohort was the basic tactical unit of a Roman legion following the reforms of Gaius Marius in 107 BC.-Legionary cohort:...

s" and a grand council; and the Emperor angrily rebuked anyone who called this institution an order. The highest rank was not a grand cross but a grand aigle (great eagle), a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses. The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously:
  • 5,000 franc
    The franc is the name of several currency units, most notably the Swiss franc, still a major world currency today due to the prominence of Swiss financial institutions and the former currency of France, the French franc until the Euro was adopted in 1999...

    s to a grand officier,
  • 2,000 francs to a commandeur,
  • 1,000 francs to an officier,
  • And 250 francs to a légionnaire.

According to some sources Napoleon declared: — "We call these children's toys, I know, it's been said already. Well, I replied that it's with such toys that one leads men." (The French word means a child's rattle.) This has been often quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led."

The order was the first modern order of merit. The orders of the monarchy were often limited to Roman Catholics and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion, however, was open to men of all ranks and professions. Only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion.

It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms.

First Empire

In a decree issued on the tenth Pluviose
Pluviôse was the fifth month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the Latin word pluviosus, which means rainy....

French Republican Calendar
The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871...

 (30 January 1805), a grand decoration was instituted. This decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, became known as the Grand Aigle, and later in 1814 as the grand cordon (French for "large sash"). After the reestablishment of the nobility
Nobility of the First French Empire
Napoleon Bonaparte created titles of nobility to institute a stable elite in the First French Empire, after the instability resulting from the French Revolution....

 in 1808, award of the Légion gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire" (chevalier de l'empire). The title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees.

Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and his senior ministers. This collar was abolished in 1815.

Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun
A nun is a woman who has taken vows committing her to live a spiritual life. She may be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent...

, Sister Anne Biget.

The Légion d'honneur was prominent and visible in the empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time. The king of Sweden therefore refused the order; it was too common in his eyes. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus (armory) in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow.

Restoration of the Bourbon Kings in 1814

Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII , known as "the Unavoidable", was King of France and of Navarre from 1814 to 1824, omitting the Hundred Days in 1815...

 changed the appearance of the order, but it was not abolished. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members. The images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV
Henry IV of France
Henry IV , Henri-Quatre, was King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. He was the first monarch of the Bourbon branch of the Capetian dynasty in France....

, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon Lilies (fleur-de-lys) replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816 the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights. The king decreed that the commandants were now commanders. The Légion became the second order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit
Order of the Holy Spirit
The Order of the Holy Spirit, also known as the Order of the Knights of the Holy Spirit, was an Order of Chivalry under the French Monarchy. It should not be confused with the Congregation of the Holy Ghost or with the Order of the Holy Ghost...


July Monarchy

France's first constitutional monarch, King Louis-Philippe of the House of Orleans, restored the order of the Légion d'honneur in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation. The insignia were drastically altered. The cross now displayed tricolour flags.
Louis-Philippe abolished the other orders of the monarchy. In 1847, there were 47,000 members.

Second Republic

Yet another revolt in Paris (1848) brought a new republic and a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Prince Napoleon was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852 the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin
Angelique Brulon
Angelique Brulon, or Marie Angélique Duchemin , was a French soldier.Brulon served from 1792–1799 in the defence of Corsica. She initially fought disguised as a man, but was eventually discovered to be a woman. Despite this, she had shown such valour in battle that she was allowed to remain in...

, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. President Napoleon staged a coup d'état
Coup d'état
A coup d'état state, literally: strike/blow of state)—also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extrajudicial deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either...

 and made himself emperor of the French in 1852.

Second Empire

An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign the first American was admitted: Dr. Thomas Wiltberger Evans, dentist of Napoleon III.

Third Republic

In 1870 the defeat of the army in the Franco-Prussian war
Franco-Prussian War
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and...

 brought another Republic. As France changed, the Légion d'honneur changed as well. The crown was replaced by a laurel and oak wreath. In 1871, during the Paris Commune
Paris Commune
The Paris Commune was a government that briefly ruled Paris from March 18 to May 28, 1871. It existed before the split between anarchists and Marxists had taken place, and it is hailed by both groups as the first assumption of power by the working class during the Industrial Revolution...

, the Hôtel de Salm
Palais de la Légion d'Honneur
The Palais de la Légion d'Honneur is the building on the west bank of the River Seine in Paris that houses the Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie and is the seat of the Légion d'honneur, the highest order of chivalry of France...

, headquarters of the Légion, was burned to the ground in street fighting; the archives of the order were lost.

In the second term of Jules Grévy
Jules Grévy
François Paul Jules Grévy was a President of the French Third Republic and one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republicans faction. Given that his predecessors were monarchists who tried without success to restore the French monarchy, Grévy is seen as the first real republican President of...

, newspaper journalists brought to light the trafficking of Grévy's son-in-law, Daniel Wilson, in the awarding of decorations of the Légion d'Honneur. Grévy was not accused of personal participation in these scandals, but he was slow to accept his indirect responsibility, which caused his eventual resignation on 2 December 1887.

During the First World War
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, some 55,000 decorations were conferred, 20,000 of which to foreigners. The large number of decorations results from the new posthumous awards authorised in 1918. Traditionally membership in the Légion could not be awarded posthumously.

Current organisation and officers

The President of the French Republic
President of the French Republic
The President of the French Republic colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France's elected Head of State....

 is the Grand Master of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order—by convention, on the advice of the Government. Its principal officers are the Chancellor and Secretary-General.

Current officers of the Order include:
  • Grand Master: Nicolas Sarkozy
    Nicolas Sarkozy
    Nicolas Sarkozy is the 23rd and current President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. He assumed the office on 16 May 2007 after defeating the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal 10 days earlier....

  • Grand Chancellor: General
    Army General (France)
    A Général d'Armée is the highest active military rank of the French Army.Officially, Général d'armée is not a rank , but a position and style bestowed on some Généraux de division in charge of important commands, such as chief of staff of the army...

     Jean-Louis Georgelin
    Jean-Louis Georgelin
    Jean-Louis Georgelin is an Army General . Great Chancellor of the French national order of the Legion of honnor from the 9 June 2010...

     since the 9th of June 2010
  • Secretary-General: Luc Fons since 2007

The Grand Master's insignia is the Grand Collar of the Legion, worn only by the President of the Republic, as Grand Master of the Order.

French nationals, men and women, can be received into the légion, for "eminent merit" (mérites éminents) in military or civil life. In practice, in current usage, the order is conferred, in addition to military recipients, to entrepreneur
An entrepreneur is an owner or manager of a business enterprise who makes money through risk and initiative.The term was originally a loanword from French and was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon. Entrepreneur in English is a term applied to a person who is willing to...

s, high-level civil servants
French Civil Service
The French Civil Service is the set of civil servants working for the French government.Not all employees of the state and public institutions or corporations are civil servants; however, the media often incorrectly equate "government employee" or "employee of a public corporation" with...

, sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

A champion is the victor in a challenge, contest or competition.There can be a territorial pyramid of championships, e.g. local, regional / provincial, state, national, continental and world championships, and even further divisions at one or more of these levels, as in soccer. Their champions...

s in as well as others with connections in the executive. Members of the French Parliament cannot receive the order, except for valour in war, and ministers are not allowed to nominate their accountants.

French nationals initially always enter the légion at the class of chevalier (knight). To be promoted to a higher class, one must demonstrate new services to France and a set number of years must pass between appointment and promotion. The only exception is the President of the Republic, who is made a grand cross ex officio upon his accession to the presidency. Foreigners are not admitted in the légion as such, but may be decorated with the insignia of the légion. A foreigner can be decorated directly with the insignia of a higher class. Foreign heads of state and the wives or consorts of monarchs are made Grand Cross as a courtesy.

One man awarded the Légion d'honneur was Gustave Camoin, a reporter for Agence France Presse. His award was for reporting the scuttling
Scuttling is the act of deliberately sinking a ship by allowing water to flow into the hull.This can be achieved in several ways—valves or hatches can be opened to the sea, or holes may be ripped into the hull with brute force or with explosives...

 of the French Fleet off Toulon
Toulon is a town in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region, Toulon is the capital of the Var department in the former province of Provence....

 against the wishes of the Gestapo and Germans. For this, he suffered an all night interrogation by the Gestapo
The Gestapo was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Beginning on 20 April 1934, it was under the administration of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler in his position as Chief of German Police...

, but they did not harm him as he was a public figure.

The Order has a maximum quota of 75 Grand Cross, 250 Grand Officers, 1,250 Commanders, 10,000 Officers and 113,425 (ordinary) Knights. As of 2010 the actual membership was 67 Grand Cross, 314 Grand Officers, 3,009 Commanders, 17,032 Officers and 74,384 Knights.

Appointments of veterans of the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, French military personnel involved in the North African Campaign and other foreign French military operations, as well as wounded soldiers, are made independently of the quota.

In 1998, all surviving veterans of the First World War from any allied country who had fought on French soil were made Knights of the Légion if they were not so already, as part of the commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the war's end. In December 2004, on the occasion of his 110th birthday
A supercentenarian is someone who has reached the age of 110 years. This age is achieved by about one in a thousand centenarians....

, France's oldest surviving veteran of the war, Maurice Floquet
Maurice Floquet
Maurice Noël Floquet was, at age 111, France's oldest man on record and was one of the last surviving French veterans of World War I. He was, at the age of 111 years and 320 days, France's longest-lived soldier ever. Moreover, Maurice was France's oldest living man for more than four years...

, was promoted to Officer. On 9 and 16 March 2009, Harry Patch
Harry Patch
Henry John "Harry" Patch , known in his latter years as "the Last Fighting Tommy", was a British supercentenarian, briefly the oldest man in Europe, and the last surviving soldier to have fought in the trenches of the First World War...

 and Henry Allingham
Henry Allingham
Henry William Allingham was a British supercentenarian, First World War veteran and, for one month, the verified oldest living man in the world...

 were also promoted to Officer.

Members convicted of a felony (crime in French) are dismissed de jure from the order. Members convicted of a misdemeanour (délit in French) can be dismissed as well.

Wearing the decoration of the Légion d'honneur without having the right to do so is an offence. Wearing the ribbon or rosette
Rosette (decoration)
A rosette is a small, circular device that is presented with a medal. The rosettes are primarily for situations where wearing the medal is deemed inappropriate. Rosettes are issued in nations such as France, Italy and Japan...

 of a foreign order is prohibited if that ribbon is mainly red, like the ribbon of the Légion.

French military members in uniform must salute other military members in uniform wearing the medal, whatever the Légion d'honneur rank and the military rank of the bearer. This is not mandatory with the ribbon. In practice, however, this is rarely done.

Collective appointments can be made to cities, institutions, companies, or military units. In the case of a military unit, its flag is decorated with the insignia of a knight, which is a different award than the fourragère
The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, that is shaped as a braided cord. The award has been firstly adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium and Portugal.- History :...

. Cities display the decoration in their coat of arms.

Twenty-one schools, mainly schools providing reserve officers during the World Wars, were awarded the Légion d'honneur. They share this distinction with the Red Cross, the abbey of Our Lady of Dombes and the state-railway company SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...


Classes and insignia

The order has had five levels since the reign of the king Louis XVIII, who restored the order in 1815. Since the reform, the following distinctions have existed :
  • Three ranks :
    • Chevalier (knight): badge worn on left breast suspended from ribbon.
    • Officier (Officer): badge worn on left breast suspended from a ribbon with a rosette.
    • Commandeur (Commander): badge around neck suspended from ribbon necklet.
  • Two dignities :
    • Grand Officier (Grand Officer): badge worn on left breast suspended from a ribbon, with star displayed on right breast.
    • Grand Croix (Grand Cross) formerly grande décoration, grand aigle or grand cordon: the highest level; badge affixed to sash worn over the right shoulder, with star displayed on left breast.

The sitting President of the Republic, as grand master of the order, wears the Grand Collar of the Légion, which is presented to him upon his investiture.

The badge of the Légion is a five-armed "Maltese Asterisk
An asterisk is a typographical symbol or glyph. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star. Computer scientists and mathematicians often pronounce it as star...

" (for want of a better description — see Maltese Cross) in gilt
The term gilding covers a number of decorative techniques for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold. A gilded object is described as "gilt"...

 (in silver for chevalier) enamelled white, with an enamelled laurel
Bay Laurel
The bay laurel , also known as sweet bay, bay tree, true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree, or simply laurel, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is the source of the bay leaf used in cooking...

 and oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

 wreath between the arms. The obverse central disc is in gilt, featuring the head of Marianne
Marianne is a national emblem of France and an allegory of Liberty and Reason. She represents the state and values of France, differently from another French cultural symbol, the "Coq Gaulois" which represents France as a nation and its history, land, culture, and variety of sport disciplines in...

, surrounded by the legend République Française on a blue enamel ring. The reverse central disc is also in gilt, with a set of crossed tricolores
Flag of France
The national flag of France is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured royal blue , white, and red...

, surrounded by the Légion's motto Honneur et Patrie (Honour and Fatherland) and its foundation date on a blue enamel ring. The badge is suspended by an enamelled laurel and oak wreath.

The star (or "plaque") is worn by the Grand Cross (in gilt on the left chest) and the Grand Officer (in silver on the right chest) respectively; it is similar to the badge, but without enamel, and with the wreath replaced by a cluster of rays in between each arm. The central disc features the head of Marianne
Marianne is a national emblem of France and an allegory of Liberty and Reason. She represents the state and values of France, differently from another French cultural symbol, the "Coq Gaulois" which represents France as a nation and its history, land, culture, and variety of sport disciplines in...

, surrounded by the legend République Française (French Republic) and the motto Honneur et Patrie.

The ribbon
A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material, typically cloth but also plastic or sometimes metal, used primarily for binding and tying. Cloth ribbons, most commonly silk, are often used in connection with clothing, but are also applied for innumerable useful, ornamental and symbolic purposes...

 for the medal is plain red.

The badge or star is not worn usually, except at the time of the decoration ceremony or on a dress uniform
Dress uniform
Dress uniform , is the most formal military uniform, typically worn at ceremonies, official receptions, and other special occasions; with order insignias and full size medals...

 or formal wear
Formal wear
Formal wear and formal dress are the general terms for clothing suitable for formal social events, such as a wedding, formal garden party or dinner, débutante cotillion, dance, or race...

. Instead, one normally wears the ribbon or rosette on one's suit.

Foreign recipients

Technically, membership in the Légion is restricted to French nationals. Foreign nationals who have served France or the ideals it upholds may, however, receive a distinction of the Légion, which is nearly the same thing as membership in the Légion. Foreign nationals who live in France are submitted to the same requirements as Frenchmen. Foreign nationals who live abroad may be awarded a distinction of any rank or dignity in the Légion.

Military Units

The Flag or Standard of the following units was decorated with the Cross of Knight the Legion:
  • 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment
    2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment
    The 2nd Foreign Parachute Regiment is an Airborne regiment of the French Foreign Legion. It is a part of the 11e Brigade Parachutiste and the spearhead of the French Rapid reaction force.-Indochina:...

  • 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
    3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
    The 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the French Foreign Legion. The regiment is stationed in French Guiana, protecting the Centre Spatial Guyanais.-World War I:...

     (Regiment walk from the Foreign Legion).
  • 1st Foreign Regiment
    1st Foreign Regiment
    The 1st Foreign Regiment is the senior regiment in the French Foreign Legion. Today the regiment is mainly administrative, and provides staff for the Command of the Foreign Legion....

  • Infantry-tank Regiment Marine (Colonial Infantry Regiment of Morocco). Book of the regiment will be fighting its most decorated emblem of the French army.
  • 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
    1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
    The 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment is one of three regiments in the French Army Special Forces Brigade. Based in Bayonne in the local Citadel...

  • 1st Marine Infantry Regiment
    1st Marine Infantry Regiment
    The 1st Marine Infantry Regiment is a French regiment, that inherits from Colonial Infantry. It is one of the oldest regiments of the Troupes de Marine with 2e RIMa, 3e RIMa, 4e RIMa and 1er RAMa, forming the Blue Division during Franco-Prussian war....

  • 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment
    2nd Marine Infantry Regiment
    The 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment is one of the oldest marine units in the French Army, as part of the troupes de marine.The 2nd Marine Infantry Regiment is a unit of the French army is the only one to carry 15 names on its battle flag and the inscription "AFN 1952-1962"...

  • 23nd Marine Infantry Regiment.
  • 24nd Marine Infantry Regiment.
  • 43rd Marine Infantry Regiment.
  • 1st Marine Artillery Regiment.
  • 11th Marine Artillery Regiment
    11th Marine Artillery Regiment
    The 11th Marine Artillery Regiment is an artillery regiment of the French Army. It constitutes the fire support unit of the 9th Light Armoured Marine Brigade...

  • 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment
    1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment
    The 1st Parachute Chasseur Regiment is an airborne unit of the French Army. It was the first French parachute regiment and is today part of the 11th Parachute Brigade.-Organisation:*Command and Logistic “Yellow” Company*Support and Lightning “Blue” Company...

  • 30th Battalion of Chasseurs.
  • 1st Train Regiment.
  • 8th Infantry Regiment.
  • 23rd Regiment Infantry.
  • 26th Regiment Infantry.
  • 51st Infantry Regiment.
  • 57th Regiment Infantry.
  • 137th Infantry Regiment.
  • 152nd Infantry Regiment.
  • 153rd Infantry Regiment.
  • 298th Infantry Regiment.
  • 1st Regiment of Riflemen.
  • 1st Regiment of Algerian Riflemen.
  • 2nd Regiment of Algerian Infantry.
  • 3rd Algerian Infantry Regiment.
  • 7th Algerian Infantry Regiment.
  • Moroccan Goumier.
  • 4th Regiment of Tunisian Riflemen.
  • 1st Regiment of Senegalese Riflemen.
  • 1st Regiment of African Hunters.
  • 2nd Regiment of Zouaves.
  • 3rd Regiment of Zouaves.
  • 4th Regiment of Zouaves.
  • 8th regiment of Zouaves.
  • 9th Regiment of Zouaves.
  • Joint 4th Regiment of Zouaves and Sharpshooters.
  • Paris Fire Brigade
    Paris Fire Brigade
    The Paris Fire Brigade , is a French Army unit which serves as the fire service for Paris and certain sites of national strategic importance....

  • Fusiliers Marins(Naval Infantry).
  • Fighter Squadron 1 / 30 Normandie-Niemen
    The Normandie-Niemen Regiment was a fighter squadron, later regiment of the French Air Force. It served on the Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II with the 1st Air Army...


Locations associated with the Order

A grand total of 68 cities and villages, amongst them Liège in 1914, Belgrade
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers, where the Pannonian Plain meets the Balkans. According to official results of Census 2011, the city has a population of 1,639,121. It is one of the 15 largest cities in Europe...

 in 1920, Luxembourg
Luxembourg (city)
The city of Luxembourg , also known as Luxembourg City , is a commune with city status, and the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It is located at the confluence of the Alzette and Pétrusse Rivers in southern Luxembourg...

 in 1957 and Stalingrad (today's Volgograd
Volgograd , formerly called Tsaritsyn and Stalingrad is an important industrial city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. It is long, north to south, situated on the western bank of the Volga River...

) in 1984 were decorated, as were 51 regiments and the Military School of Autun
Autun is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in Burgundy in eastern France. It was founded during the early Roman Empire as Augustodunum. Autun marks the easternmost extent of the Umayyad campaign in Europe.-Early history:...


The Order has its own élite boarding schools in Saint-Denis
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a sous-préfecture of the Seine-Saint-Denis département, being the seat of the Arrondissement of Saint-Denis....

 and Les Loges in the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a commune in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France in north-central France. It is located in the western suburbs of Paris from the centre.Inhabitants are called Saint-Germanois...

. A thousand children and grandchildren of the members of the order are educated there. Study there is restricted to daughters, grand-daughters, and great-grand-daughters of members of the order, the Médaille militaire
Médaille militaire
The Médaille militaire is a decoration of the French Republic which was first instituted in 1852.-History:The creator of the médaille was the emperor Napoléon III, who may have taken his inspiration in a medal issued by his father, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland...

 or the Ordre national du Mérite
Ordre National du Mérite
The Ordre national du Mérite is an Order of State awarded by the President of the French Republic. It was founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle...


See also

  • List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name
  • List of prizes, medals, and awards
  • Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie
    Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie
    The Musée national de la Légion d'Honneur et des Ordres de Chevalerie is a museum of national orders of merit located in the 7th arrondissement in the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur beside the Musée d'Orsay at 2, rue de la Légion-d'Honneur , Paris, France. It is open daily except Monday; admission...

  • Order (decoration)
    Order (decoration)
    An order or order of merit is a visible honour, awarded by a government, dynastic house or international organization to an individual, usually in recognition of distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. The distinction between orders and decorations is somewhat vague, except that most...

  • Order of the Garter
    Order of the Garter
    The Most Noble Order of the Garter, founded in 1348, is the highest order of chivalry, or knighthood, existing in England. The order is dedicated to the image and arms of St...

  • Order of the Golden Fleece
    Order of the Golden Fleece
    The Order of the Golden Fleece is an order of chivalry founded in Bruges by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy in 1430, to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Infanta Isabella of Portugal, daughter of King John I of Portugal. It evolved as one of the most prestigious orders in Europe...

  • Ordre de la Libération
    Ordre de la Libération
    The Ordre de la Libération is a French Order awarded to heroes of the Liberation of France during World War II. It is an exceptional honor, the second highest after the Légion d’Honneur and only a small number of people and military units have received it, exclusively for deeds accomplished...

  • Ordre National du Mérite
    Ordre National du Mérite
    The Ordre national du Mérite is an Order of State awarded by the President of the French Republic. It was founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle...

  • Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
    Ribbons of the French military and civil awards
    This is a list of the ribbons of the French military and civil awards.-French National Orders:-French Ministerial Orders:-The principal French military awards:-The French commemorative awards:- Medals of Honor :-The other awards:...

  • State decoration
    State decoration
    State decorations are orders, medals and other decorations granted by a state. International decorations are similar, but are not granted by a specific nation but rather an international organization....

External links

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