Juan Seguín
Overview
 
Juan Nepomuceno Seguín was a 19th-century Texas Senator, Mayor, Judge, and Justice of the Peace and a prominent participant in the Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836...

.
Juan Seguín was born in San Antonio de Bexar on October 27, 1806. He was the older of two sons of Erasmo Seguín
Erasmo Seguín
Juan Jose Maria Erasmo Seguin was a prominent citizen and politician in San Antonio de Bexar in the 19th century. From 1807 until 1835, Seguin served as postmaster of San Anotnio, TX. After Mexico achieved independence from Spain, Seguin was named the sole representative from Texas to the...

 and María Josefa Becerra. As the son of a postmaster, he would assist his mother in the business, while his father was off writing the Mexican Constitution of 1824.
Encyclopedia
Juan Nepomuceno Seguín was a 19th-century Texas Senator, Mayor, Judge, and Justice of the Peace and a prominent participant in the Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
The Texas Revolution or Texas War of Independence was an armed conflict between Mexico and settlers in the Texas portion of the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas. The war lasted from October 2, 1835 to April 21, 1836...

.

Early life and family

Juan Seguín was born in San Antonio de Bexar on October 27, 1806. He was the older of two sons of Erasmo Seguín
Erasmo Seguín
Juan Jose Maria Erasmo Seguin was a prominent citizen and politician in San Antonio de Bexar in the 19th century. From 1807 until 1835, Seguin served as postmaster of San Anotnio, TX. After Mexico achieved independence from Spain, Seguin was named the sole representative from Texas to the...

 and María Josefa Becerra. As the son of a postmaster, he would assist his mother in the business, while his father was off writing the Mexican Constitution of 1824. In 1825, he married María Gertrudis Flores de Abrego. They had ten children. He was elected an alderman in December, 1828 and served on numerous electoral boards before becoming the San Antonio alcalde (mayor) in December 1833. He then served as political chief of Bexar in 1834, when the previous chief became ill. In 1835, he led a relief force to Monclova, when the Federalist Governor appealed for help.

Texas Revolution

As a teenager in Mexico, he had a strong interest in politics. When, Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

 repealed the Mexican Constitution of 1824, he was very critical of his contemporary Mexican leader and gladly joined the Texas Revolution to rid Texas of Santa Anna's rule. In 1835-1836, Seguin recruited and commanded troops for the Texian Army
Texian Army
The Texian Army was a military organization consisting of volunteer and regular soldiers who fought against the Mexican army during the Texas Revolution. Approximately 3,700 men joined the army between October 2, 1835 during the Battle of Gonzales through the end of the war on April 21, 1836, at...

. Juan Seguin married María Gertrudis Flores de Abrego, a member of one of San Antonio's well known ranching families. There were four Jose Flores De Abrego sons, (brother-in-laws to Juan Seguin), that joined in with him. (see de la Teja (1991), p. 18) Captain Salvador Flores
Salvador Flores
Salvador Flores served as a volunteer in the Texan Army in 1835–1836. He was instrumental in organizing and commanding Texian volunteers in support of the Texas Revolution. He participated in many battles and would rise through the ranks to reach Captain status during the fight for Texas...

, Captain Manuel N. Flores
Manuel N. Flores
Manuel Flores served as a volunteer in the Texas army in 1835-1838. Fighting and commanding, he would rise through the ranks to reach Sergeant status during the fight for Texas independence and would be commissioned a Captain during the Republic Years.-Family History- Early Years:Manuel Flores...

, Lieutenant Nepomuceno Flores, and Private Jose Maria Flores all participated in the Texas Revolution, on the Texian side.
He was commissioned a captain by Stephen F. Austin
Stephen F. Austin
Stephen Fuller Austin was born in Virginia and raised in southeastern Missouri. He was known as the Father of Texas, led the second, but first legal and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States. The capital of Texas, Austin in Travis County,...

 in October 1835 and would be tasked with the burden of supplying the Texian troops with food and provisions. Juan sent out scouting parties to the Missions of San Antonio
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park
San Antonio Missions National Historical Park preserves four of the five Spanish frontier missions in San Antonio, Texas. These outposts were established by Catholic religious orders to spread Christianity among the local natives...

 in search of a suitable base camp for the Texians and participated in the early successful Battle of Concepcion
Battle of Concepcion
The Battle of Concepción was fought on October 28, 1835 between Mexican troops under Colonel Domingo Ugartechea and Texian insurgents led by James Bowie and James Fannin. The 30-minute engagement, which historian J.R...

 and the 2 month long, Siege of Bexar
Siege of Bexar
The Siege of Béxar was an early campaign of the Texas Revolution in which a volunteer Texan army successfully defeated Mexican forces at San Antonio de Béxar . Texians had become disillusioned with the Mexican government as President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's tenure became increasingly...

, that drove the troops of Santa Anna out of Texas.

In January 1836, he was commissioned as a Captain in the regular Texas army.According to records, Seguin did not appear at the Convention to accept his appointment in the regular army. Jesus (Comanche) Cuellar would fill in for him. He instead, took the position to become the first judge of San Antonio. According to Lindley, he was not regular army until after departing the Alamo as a courier on February 25. See de la Teja pg.79, Lindley pg.113 Upon the return of Santa Anna's army, Juan would join William B. Travis
William B. Travis
William Barret Travis was a 19th-century American lawyer and soldier. At the age of 26, he was a lieutenant colonel in the Texas Army...

 on February 23, in the battle of the Alamo
Battle of the Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar . All but two of the Texian defenders were killed...

. Although serving at the Alamo
Alamo
The Battle of the Alamo was a battle fought during the Texas Revolution.Alamo may also refer to:-Places:*Alamo Mission in San Antonio, Texas*Alamo, California*Alamo, Georgia*Alamo Township, Michigan*Alamo, Nevada*Alamo, New Mexico...

, during the thirteen day siege
Siege of the Alamo
The siege of the Alamo describes the first twelve days of the Battle of the Alamo. On February 23, Mexican troops under General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna entered San Antonio de Bexar, Texas and surrounded the Alamo Mission...

, he did not actually participate in the final battle of the Alamo but was a very significant part of the battle of San Jacinto
Battle of San Jacinto
The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna's Mexican forces in a fight that lasted just eighteen...

. Because Seguín spoke some English and Spanish, he was chosen to carry the Alamo message through enemy lines, that the Texans "shall never surrender or retreat." Seguín got that message through to the other soldiers, on the Texian side. He then returned with men to reinforce the Alamo
Alamo Mission in San Antonio
The Alamo, originally known as Mission San Antonio de Valero, is a former Roman Catholic mission and fortress compound, site of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836, and now a museum, in San Antonio, Texas....

, but it had already fallen to Santa Anna's army.

Life under the Republic of Texas

After becoming a Republic, he would be the head of the San Antonio military, commanding a force to defend the western frontier. In 1837, Colonel Seguín would direct the burial of the ashes of the slain Alamo defenders. In 1839, Seguín, captain of a Texas force of about fifty-four men would again protect the colonists in the Henry Karnes campaign against the hostile Comanche
Comanche
The Comanche are a Native American ethnic group whose historic range consisted of present-day eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado, northeastern Arizona, southern Kansas, all of Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. Historically, the Comanches were hunter-gatherers, with a typical Plains Indian...

 Indians.

Seguín was elected as a Texas Senator from 1837 to 1840 and worked closely with Congressman José Antonio Navarro
José Antonio Navarro
José Antonio Navarro was a Texas statesman, revolutionary, politician, and merchant. The son of Ángel Navarro and Josefa María Ruiz y Pena, he was born into a distinguished noble family at San Antonio de Béxar in New Spain....

, to ensure legislation that would be in the best interest of the citizenry of Texas, who were quickly becoming the political minority. In 1839, at a town thirty miles east of San Antonio, he was honored by parade and celebration. That newly named town would now bear his own name, Seguin
Seguin, Texas
Seguin is a city in Guadalupe County, Texas, in the United States. It is part of the San Antonio-New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,011; the July 1, 2009 Census estimate, however, showed the population had increased to 26,842...

. In 1840, he resigned his congressional seat in order to join a controversial campaign against the Centralist government in Mexico City. Juan became mayor of San Antonio
San Antonio, Texas
San Antonio is the seventh-largest city in the United States of America and the second-largest city within the state of Texas, with a population of 1.33 million. Located in the American Southwest and the south–central part of Texas, the city serves as the seat of Bexar County. In 2011,...

 in 1841.

Texas became flooded by adventurous and land hungry North Americans that were unfamiliar with the native Texan's history and their loyal support of Texas. His leadership and loyalty would be challenged by these newcomers. Refusing to burn San Antonio to the ground by order of the new head of the Texas military
Felix Huston
Felix Huston was a lawyer, soldier and the first commanding general of the Army of the Republic of Texas.Huston was born in Kentucky. He was a slave trader, planter and Whig politician and attorney in Natchez, Mississippi...

 was just the beginning.

In 1842, San Antonio would be overrun twice, by Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

's forces. During March 1842, Colonel Seguin and the citizens of San Antonio would seek refuge at Manuel Flores
Manuel N. Flores
Manuel Flores served as a volunteer in the Texas army in 1835-1838. Fighting and commanding, he would rise through the ranks to reach Sergeant status during the fight for Texas independence and would be commissioned a Captain during the Republic Years.-Family History- Early Years:Manuel Flores...

 Ranch in the city of Seguin, Texas
Seguin, Texas
Seguin is a city in Guadalupe County, Texas, in the United States. It is part of the San Antonio-New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,011; the July 1, 2009 Census estimate, however, showed the population had increased to 26,842...

. A counter attack was planned and even though Seguín had pursued the army of Ráfael Vásquez
Ráfael Vásquez (Mexican general)
Ráfael Vásquez was a 19th-Century General in the Mexican Army during the Mexican rebellion against the centralist style rule of government.-Early life:...

, chasing them from Texas; he was doomed to be blamed for the attack.

Seguín would resign from office in April, due to threats on his life. Opposition to his defense of Texas rights, adversities, and false charges that he was aiding the Mexican army, proved too much to bear. He fled to Mexico to "seek refuge amongst my enemies," where he was captured, arrested and coerced to enlist in the Mexican army as a staff official. He would return to San Antonio with the opposition army of Adrian Woll
Adrián Woll
Adrián Woll was a French soldier of fortune and mercenary who served as a general in the army of Mexico during the Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War.-Biography:...

 in September 1842 and later served under Santa Anna in the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848.

Later life

In February 1848, Juan requested permission to return to Texas. By years end, he had returned to Texas, establishing a home adjacent his father Erasmo Seguin
Erasmo Seguín
Juan Jose Maria Erasmo Seguin was a prominent citizen and politician in San Antonio de Bexar in the 19th century. From 1807 until 1835, Seguin served as postmaster of San Anotnio, TX. After Mexico achieved independence from Spain, Seguin was named the sole representative from Texas to the...

's house, and ranching in Floresville, Texas
Floresville, Texas
Floresville is a city in Wilson County, Texas, United States. The population was 5,868 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Wilson County. The city is also part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area....

. He was elected to two terms as Justice of the Peace
Justice of the Peace
A justice of the peace is a puisne judicial officer elected or appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. Depending on the jurisdiction, they might dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions...

 of Bexar County
Bexar County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, and 345,681 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,117 people per square mile . There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile...

 in 1852 and 1854. He became a founding father of the Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 in Bexar county. Notable is that while Seguín is being nominated to co-chair the Democratic party in 1855, his relative, Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín battles and defeats dictator Antonio López de Santa Anna, which ultimately leads to the return of a constitutional democratic government in Mexico In 1858, he published his life memoirs. Seguin served as County Judge in Wilson County
Wilson County, Texas
Wilson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 32,408. Its county seat is Floresville. The county is named after James Charles Wilson....

 in 1869. However, business dealings occasionally took him back to Mexico. And around 1883, he settled in Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo is a city located in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Río Grande, across from the United States city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo...

, Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

, Mexico, to be near his son Santiago, who was mayor. He died there on August 27, 1890. His remains were returned to Texas in 1974 and reinterred in his namesake town, Seguin
Seguin, Texas
Seguin is a city in Guadalupe County, Texas, in the United States. It is part of the San Antonio-New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,011; the July 1, 2009 Census estimate, however, showed the population had increased to 26,842...

, during ceremonies on July 4, 1976. A large monument, depicting him on horseback waiving his saber, now honors his service to Texas, in the downtown Seguin Central Park.

Legacy

In 1838, the city of Seguin
Seguin, Texas
Seguin is a city in Guadalupe County, Texas, in the United States. It is part of the San Antonio-New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 22,011; the July 1, 2009 Census estimate, however, showed the population had increased to 26,842...

, was named for him and there he rode on horseback, in a parade, celebrating the event.

Over the years, the attitude to Juan Seguin was mixed. On one hand, he was recognized as the Alamo hero, on the other, he was often labeled as traitor, both by Texans and Mexicans.

In the 1960 film The Alamo
The Alamo (1960 film)
The Alamo is a 1960 American historical epic released by United Artists. The film was directed by John Wayne, who also starred as Davy Crockett. The cast also includes Richard Widmark as Jim Bowie and Laurence Harvey as William B...

 (by John Wayne
John Wayne
Marion Mitchell Morrison , better known by his stage name John Wayne, was an American film actor, director and producer. He epitomized rugged masculinity and became an enduring American icon. He is famous for his distinctive calm voice, walk, and height...

), Joseph Calleia played Juan Seguin, a San Antonio political figure who leads Texas volunteers to help defend the Alamo.

In the second half of the 20th century, interest in Juan Seguin grew. He was portrayed in the TV drama: American Playhouse: Seguin (1982), directed by Jesús Salvador Treviño, where he was played by A. Martinez.

In the 2004 film The Alamo
The Alamo (2004 film)
The Alamo is a 2004 American war film about the Battle of the Alamo during the Texas Revolution. The film was directed by Texan John Lee Hancock, produced by Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, and Mark Johnson, and distributed by Touchstone Pictures....

 (by John Lee Hancock
John Lee Hancock
John Lee Hancock, Jr. is an American screenwriter, film director, and producer. He is best known for directing the sports drama films The Rookie and The Blind Side.-Early life:...

), Juan Seguin was played by Jordi Molla
Jordi Mollà
Jordi Mollá Perales is a Spanish actor, filmmaker, writer and artist.Mollà's artwork is represented in the Carmen De la Guerra Gallery in Madrid, Picasso Mio Gallery in Madrid and Barcelona and Cold Creation Gallery in Barcelona...

. Playing as a supporting character, his role in the film was important, because the director considered this character as a "moral bellwether of the story".

In a September 2001 ceremony, Park Road 1836, which connects Battleground Road (formerly Texas State Highway 134) to the San Jacinto Monument Grounds
San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site
The San Jacinto Battleground State Historic Site includes the location of the Battle of San Jacinto, and the USS Texas. It is located off the Houston Ship Channel in LaPorte, Texas. The site was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960....

 near Houston, was renamed in Seguin's honor and the Interstate 610
Interstate 610 (Texas)
Interstate 610 is a freeway that forms a forty-two-mile loop around the downtown sector of city of Houston, Texas. Interstate 610, colloquially known as "The Loop", "Loop 610", "The 610 Loop", or just "610", traditionally marks the border between the inner city of Houston and its surrounding areas...

/Texas State Highway 225
Texas State Highway 225
State Highway 225, or SH 225, is an east–west freeway in the Houston area between the Interstate 610 Loop in Houston and State Highway 146 in La Porte. It is identified as the La Porte Freeway over its entire length except for Pasadena where it is called the Pasadena Freeway...

 interchange in southeast Houston was bestowed with the name of "Juan N. Seguin Memorial Interchange."

See also

  • List of Texas Revolution battles
  • Timeline of the Texas Revolution
    Timeline of the Texas Revolution
    This is a timeline of the Texas Revolution, spanning the time from the earliest independence movements of the area of Texas, over the declaration of independence from Spain, up to the secession of the Republic of Texas from Mexico....

  • Salvador Flores
    Salvador Flores
    Salvador Flores served as a volunteer in the Texan Army in 1835–1836. He was instrumental in organizing and commanding Texian volunteers in support of the Texas Revolution. He participated in many battles and would rise through the ranks to reach Captain status during the fight for Texas...

  • Manuel N. Flores
    Manuel N. Flores
    Manuel Flores served as a volunteer in the Texas army in 1835-1838. Fighting and commanding, he would rise through the ranks to reach Sergeant status during the fight for Texas independence and would be commissioned a Captain during the Republic Years.-Family History- Early Years:Manuel Flores...


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK