Apomorphies and clades
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I also have to add that clades cannot be characterized by apomorphies, because clades are not compatible with properties. The notion that they can is a consequence of the cladistic confusion of the generic with the specific. Thing and kind are two levels in conceptualization that can never meet, because if they do, conceptualization vanishes in deconceptualization. Truth is that clades and apomorphies are incompatible. If they had been compatible, objectivity would have been indistinguishable from subjectivity.

This is a complicated issue, but in its simplest form, cladism and science can be described as the mirror images of each other, cladism being totally wrong and science being totally right. Cladism may appear sensible to some people, but it is none the less the ultimate error. It is like turning the screwdriver up-side-down.